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Table 3 Association of bonding disorders with the prevalence of cleft lip among advanced-age multiparae

From: Association of cleft lip and palate on mother-to-infant bonding: a cross-sectional study in the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS)

≥35, MultiparaeHealthy (n = 15,072)CL ± P (n = 29)p valueCP (n = 8)p value
Bonding Disorders, n (%)1503 (10.0)7 (24.1) 2 (25.0) 
Crude1.002.87 (1.86–4.44)0.0153.01 (1.33–6.81)0.178
Model 1a1.002.56 (1.07–6.10)0.0332.36 (0.46–11.95)0.308
Model 2b1.002.31 (0.93–5.73)0.0721.76 (0.28–10.93)0.545
  1. Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) (all such values) for bonding disorders were compared with the reference participants
  2. aAdjusted for maternal factors (smoking and drinking habits, feeding pattern, and infant sex)
  3. bAdditionally adjusted for maternal depression with Model 1
  4. P values representing significant differences (< 0.05) are indicated in bold