Skip to main content

Table 1 Basic characteristics of participating mothers

From: Association of cleft lip and palate on mother-to-infant bonding: a cross-sectional study in the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS)

maternal age< 35≥35
parityprimiparaemultiparaeprimiparaemultiparae
HealthyCL/PHealthyCL/PHealthyCL/PHealthyCL/P
(n = 25,628)(n = 71)(n = 31,693)(n = 85)(n = 6536)(n = 18)(n = 15,072)(n = 37)
Age, Median (IQR)28 (26, 31)28 (25.7, 31)30 (28, 32)30 (27, 33)37 (36, 39)37.5 (36, 40)37 (36, 39)37 (35.5, 38)
MIBS score, Mean (SD)2.23 (2.38)1.75 (1.90)1.74 (2.20)2.02 (2.69)2.21 (2.41)2.14 (2.57)1.74 (2.21)3.08 (3.85)
Bonding disorders (≥5)3528 (13.8)5 (7.0)3104 (9.8)9 (10.6)895 (13.7)3 (16.7)1503 (10.0)9 (24.3)
K6 score, Mean (SD)2.85 (3.63)3.30 (4.24)2.86 (3.75)2.95 (4.15)2.63 (3.34)2.22 (2.71)2.62 (3.39)3.26 (4.57)
Depression (≥13)715 (2.8)2 (2.8)955 (3.0)3 (3.5)128 (2.0)0 (0)299 (2.0)3 (8.1)
Smoking habit, n (%)
 Never15,988 (62.4)41 (57.7)17,665 (55.7)50 (58.8)3983 (61.0)12 (66.7)9153 (60.7)24 (64.9)
 Stopped8735 (34.1)27 (38.0)12,418 (39.2)30 (35.3)2379 (36.4)6 (33.3)5311 (35.2)12 (32.4)
 Smoking905 (3.5)3 (4.2)1610 (5.1)5 (5.9)174 (2.7)0 (0)608 (4.0)1 (2.7)
Alcohol intake, n (%)
 Never8332 (32.5)26 (36.6)11,906 (37.6)31 (36.5)2009 (30.7)7 (38.9)5200 (34.5)15 (40.5)
 Stopped15,373 (60.0)42 (59.2)16,643 (52.5)43 (50.6)3894 (59.6)11 (61.1)7719 (51.2)20 (54.1)
 Drinking1923 (7.5)3 (4.2)3144 (9.9)11 (12.9)633 (9.7)0 (0)2153 (14.3)2 (5.4)
sex, n (%)
 Male12,957 (50.6)38 (53.5)16,076 (50.7)48 (56.5)3359 (51.4)11 (61.1)7809 (51.8)20 (54.1)
 Female12,671 (49.4)33 (46.5)15,617 (49.3)37 (43.5)3177 (48.6)7 (38.9)7263 (48.2)17 (45.9)
Feeding pattern, n (%)
 Breast7442 (29.0)5 (7.0)11,932 (37.6)17 (20.0)1220 (18.7)0 (0)5346 (35.5)5 (13.5)
 Mixed17,670 (68.9)53 (74.6)19,008 (60.0)62 (72.9)5146 (78.7)17 (94.4)9344 (62.0)26 (70.3)
 Formula516 (2.0)13 (18.3)753 (2.4)6 (7.1)170 (2.7)1 (5.6)382 (2.5)6 (16.2)