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Table 2 Prevalence (95% CI) of allergic diseases by categories of the participants’ characteristics (N = 183,449) *#

From: Prenatal and neonatal factors involved in the development of childhood allergic diseases in Guangzhou primary and middle school students

 Allergic asthma§Allergic dermatitis†Allergic rhinitis‡Eczema¶
All1.55 (1.49, 1.60)6.41 (6.29, 6.52)4.15 (4.06, 4.24)5.14 (5.04, 5.24)
Grade
 1–61.47 (1.41, 1.53)6.94 (6.80, 7.07)4.19 (4.08, 4.30)5.21 (5.09, 5.33)
 7–91.70 (1.56, 1.83)**4.68 (4.45, 4.91)***4.02 (3.81, 4.23)4.71 (4.48, 4.94)***
 10–121.96 (1.72, 2.19)***5.27 (4.90,5.65)***4.08 (3.75, 4.41)5.43 (5.05, 5.81)
Age, Years
 6–101.45 (1.38, 1.52)7.25 (7.10, 7.40)4.20 (4.09, 4.32)5.28 (5.15, 5.41)
 11–151.66 (1.56, 1.76)***5.06 (4.88, 5.23)***4.06 (3.91, 4.22)4.83 (4.66, 5.01)***
  > 151.99 (1.72, 2.26)***4.81 (4.39, 5.23)***4.09 (3.70, 4.48)5.32 (4.88, 5.76)
Sex
 Female1.09 (1.02, 1.16)5.95 (5.79, 6.11)3.74 (3.61, 3.87)4.71 (4.57, 4.85)
 Male1.94 (1.85, 2.03)***6.80 (6.64, 6.96)***4.50 (4.37, 4.63)***5.51 (5.36, 5.65)***
Neonatal feeding
 Breast feeding1.31 (1.23, 1.39)5.61 (5.46, 5.77)3.61 (3.48, 3.74)4.83 (4.68, 4.97)
 Breast + formula feeding1.79 (1.69, 1.88)***7.69 (7.49, 7.88)***4.78 (4.63, 4.94)***5.71 (5.54, 5.88)***
 Formula feeding1.61 (1.47, 1.75)***5.52 (5.27, 5.78)4.11 (3.89, 4.33)***4.65 (4.42, 4.88)
Delivery
 Vaginal delivery1.31 (1.24, 1.38)5.80 (5.66, 5.94)3.72 (3.60, 3.83)4.91 (4.78, 5.04)
 Cesarean1.88 (1.78, 1.98)***7.27 (7.08, 7.45)***4.77 (4.62, 4.92)***5.47 (5.31, 5.63)***
Diseases in pregnancy
Hypertension
 No1.52 (1.46, 1.58)6.36 (6.25, 6.47)4.13 (4.04, 4.22)5.11 (5.01, 5.21)
 Yes3.17 (2.54, 3.79)***9.10 (8.07, 10.1)***5.59 (4.77, 6.42)***6.87 (5.97, 7.78)***
Diabetes
 No1.50 (1.44, 1.56)6.26 (6.15, 6.37)4.08 (3.99, 4.17)5.09 (4.99, 5.19)
 Yes3.48 (2.93, 4.02)***12.5 (11.5, 13.5)***7.12 (6.35, 7.90)***7.25 (6.47, 8.02)***
Intrahepatic cholestasis
 No1.54 (1.48, 1.59)6.39 (6.28, 6.50)4.14 (4.05, 4.23)5.13 (5.03, 5.23)
 Yes4.54 (2.68, 6.39)***11.3 (8.52, 14.2)***9.05 (6.50, 11.6)***9.11 (6.54, 11.7)***
Hypothyroidism
 No1.54 (1.48, 1.59)6.39 (6.28, 6.50)4.14 (4.05, 4.23)5.13 (5.03, 5.23)
 Yes4.76 (3.04, 6.48)***10.7 (8.23, 13.2)***8.32 (6.09, 10.6)***8.72 (6.43, 11.0)***
Hyperthyroidism
 No1.53 (1.48, 1.59)6.40 (6.29, 6.51)4.14 (4.05, 4.23)5.13 (5.03, 5.23)
 Yes4.61 (3.12, 6.10)***8.30 (6.34, 10.3)*7.51 (5.63, 9.38)***6.94 (5.12, 8.76)*
Anemia
 No1.50 (1.45, 1.56)6.06 (5.95, 6.18)3.94 (3.84, 4.03)4.95 (4.85, 5.06)
 Yes2.08 (1.84, 2.32)***10.7 (10.2, 11.2)***6.87 (6.45, 7.30)***7.49 (7.04, 7.93)***
Viral hepatitis
 No1.53 (1.48, 1.59)6.38 (6.27, 6.49)4.13 (4.04, 4.22)5.11 (5.01, 5.22)
 Yes2.77 (2.04, 3.50)***8.83 (7.57, 10.1)***6.11 (5.05, 7.17)***7.33 (6.17, 8.50)***
Other
 No1.53 (1.47, 1.58)6.35 (6.24, 6.46)4.10 (4.01, 4.19)5.11 (5.01, 5.21)
 Yes4.22 (3.14, 5.30)***13.8 (12.0, 15.7)***11.3 (9.59, 13.0)***9.12 (7.56, 10.7)***
Any disease above
 No1.42 (1.36, 1.48)5.82 (5.71, 5.94)3.79 (3.70, 3.88)4.83 (4.73, 4.94)
 Yes2.43 (2.23, 2.63)***10.4 (10.0, 10.8)***6.65 (6.33, 6.97)***7.26 (6.93, 7.60)***
Only child
 No1.29 (1.23, 1.36)5.47 (5.33, 5.60)3.57 (3.46, 3.68)4.59 (4.47, 4.72)
 Yes1.95 (1.84, 2.05)***7.90 (7.70, 8.10)***5.08 (4.91, 5.24)***6.00 (5.83, 6.18)***
Father smoking
 Never smoked1.56 (1.47, 1.64)6.45 (6.29, 6.61)3.99 (3.87, 4.12)5.00 (4.86, 5.14)
 Quit for > 1 year1.86 (1.64, 2.08)**6.61 (6.21, 7.02)4.58 (4.24, 4.92)***5.66 (5.28, 6.04)***
 Quit for < 1 year1.63 (1.25, 2.01)6.11 (5.40, 6.83)4.01 (3.43, 4.60)5.43 (4.75, 6.11)
 Current smoking1.47 (1.38, 1.56)6.33 (6.15, 6.50)4.27 (4.12, 4.41)**5.19 (5.03, 5.35)
  1. CI Confidence Interval
  2. *: prevalence (95% CI) (* P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01 and *** P < 0.001 indicating the significance of comparing each of other categories with the first category as the reference group
  3. #: Two proportion Z test was used for comparing prevalence of allergic disease in categories of the participants’ characteristics with the first category as the reference group
  4. §: 2,832/183,162 (1.55%), 287 missing values;
  5. †: 11,731/183,142 (6.41%), 307 missing values;
  6. ‡: 7,607/183,238 (4.15%), 211 missing values;
  7. ¶: 9,352/181,997 (5.14%), 1452 missing values