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Table 1 Characteristics of participants

From: Prenatal and neonatal factors involved in the development of childhood allergic diseases in Guangzhou primary and middle school students

CharacteristicsAllNon-case group*Case group*P-value§
Total, n (%)183,449 (100)158,305 (86.3)25,144 (13.7)/
Grade, n (%)   < 0.001†
 1–6136,771 (74.6)117,450 (74.2)19,321 (76.8) 
 7–933,013 (18.0)29,014 (18.3)3999 (15.9) 
 10–1213,665 (7.45)11,841 (7.48)1824 (7.25) 
Age, Years, n (%)#   < 0.001†
 6–10114,026 (62.2)97,603 (61.7)16,423 (65.3) 
 11–1559,374 (32.4)51,961 (32.8)7413 (29.5) 
  > 1510,049 (5.48)8741 (5.52)1308 (5.20) 
 Mean (SD)9.94 (2.99)9.97 (3.00)9.76 (2.96)< 0.001¶
Sex, n (%)
 Male98,565 (53.7)83,995 (53.1)14,570 (58.0)< 0.001‡
 Female84,884 (46.3)74,310 (46.9)10,574 (42.1) 
 Birth weight, kg, Mean (SD)2.99 (0.42)2.98 (0.42)3.02 (0.43)< 0.001¶
Neonatal feeding, n (%)   < 0.001‡
 Breast feeding80,718 (44.0)70,723 (44.7)9995 (39.8) 
 Breast+ formula feeding71,363 (38.9)60,184 (38.0)11,179 (44.5) 
 Formula feeding31,368 (17.1)27,398 (17.3)3970 (15.8) 
Delivery, n (%)   < 0.001‡
 Vaginal delivery107,830 (58.8)94,232 (59.5)13,598 (54.1) 
 Cesarean75,619 (41.2)64,073 (40.5)11,546 (45.9) 
Delivery date, n (%)   < 0.001‡
 On the due date50,595 (27.6)45,627 (28.8)4968 (19.8) 
 Overdue44,520 (24.3)37,855 (23.9)6665 (26.5) 
 Before the due date88,334 (48.2)74,823 (47.3)13,511 (53.7) 
Diseases in pregnancy, n (%)
 Hypertension3005 (1.64)2472 (1.56)533 (2.12)< 0.001‡
 Diabetes4290 (2.34)3329 (2.10)961 (3.82)< 0.001‡
 Intrahepatic cholestasis486 (0.26)383 (0.24)103 (0.41)< 0.001‡
 Hypothyroidism590 (0.32)470 (0.30)120 (0.48)< 0.001‡
 Hyperthyroidism760 (0.41)626 (0.40)134 (0.53)0.002‡
 Anemia13,515 (7.37)10,701 (6.76)2814 (11.2)< 0.001‡
 Viral hepatitis1950 (1.06)1604 (1.01)346 (1.38)< 0.001‡
 Other1331 (0.73)968 (0.61)363 (1.44)< 0.001‡
 Any disease above23,175 (12.6)18,434 (11.6)4741 (18.9)< 0.001‡
 Only child, n (%)70,832 (38.6)59,201 (37.4)11,631 (46.3)< 0.001‡
 One or both parents’ education> 12 years, n (%)133,304 (72.7)113,317 (71.6)19,987 (79.5)< 0.001‡
Father smoking, n (%)   0.129†
 Never smoked90,370 (49.3)78,172 (49.4)12,198 (48.5) 
 Quit for > 1 year14,584 (7.95)12,410 (7.84)2174 (8.65) 
 Quit for < 1 year4291 (2.34)3698 (2.34)593 (2.36) 
 Current smoking74,204 (40.5)64,025 (40.4)10,179 (40.5) 
Mother smoking, n (%)   0.519†
 Never smoked181,814 (99.1)156,903 (99.1)24,911 (99.1) 
 Quit for > 1 year672 (0.37)575 (0.36)97 (0.39) 
 Quit for < 1 year218 (0.12)189 (0.12)29 (0.12) 
 Current smoking745 (0.41)638 (0.40)107 (0.43) 
Average Household monthly income per person, US$, n (%)   < 0.001†
  < 73561,248 (33.4)54,362 (34.3)6886 (27.4) 
 735–176474,842 (40.8)64,471 (40.7)10,371 (41.3) 
  > =176447,359 (25.8)39,472 (24.9)7887 (31.4) 
  1. SD: Standard deviation; 1USAdollar = 6.80RMB
  2. #: The mean age of school grade 1 is six years old
  3. * Case group included children who had allergic asthma, allergic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and eczema, and children without above cases were included in the non-case group
  4. § P value was for comparing the differences between case group and non-case group
  5. † Ordinal logistic regression was used for the comparison
  6. ‡ Chi-squared test was used for the comparison
  7. ¶ Two sample t test was used for the comparison