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Table 4 Significant differences in ABQ scores between ASD children with and without GI symptoms, and between verbal and non-verbal subjects

From: Vocal and motor behaviors as a possible expression of gastrointestinal problems in preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

  GI children
n = 30
No-GI children
n = 55
p  ≤ 0.01*
≤ 0.001**
Verbal children
n = 39
Non-verbal children
n = 46
p ≤ 0.01*
≤ 0.001**
6-GI Scores 4.43 ± 1.28 0.82 ± 0.80 < 0.001** 1.74 ± 1.74 2.39 ± 2.16 NS
Total GSI Scores 6.73 ± 1.70 2.04 ± 1.53 < 0.001** 3.10 ± 2.38 4.20 ± 2.97 NS
Associated Behaviors
 Total Score 14.21 ± 5.75 9.33 ± 6.03 0.001**    
 VB (overall score) 3.67 ± 2.29 2.55 ± 1.87 0.017    
 MB (overall score) 6.93 ± 4.31 4.87 ± 3.63 0.022    
 C (overall score) 2.67 ± 1.60 1.91 ± 1.59 0.039    
Frequent clearing of throat, swallowing and/or tics 0.16 ± 0.44 0.53 ± 0.63 0.003
 Sighing and/or whining 0.89 ± 0.63 0.53 ± 0.60 0.012    
 Moaning and/or groaning 0.78 ± 0.70 0.34 ± 0.52 0.002* 0.34 ± 0.48 0.62 ± 0.70 0.044
 Facial grimacing 0.78 ± 0.58 0.31 ± 0.47 < 0.001**    
 Constant eating/drinking/swallowing 0.80 ± 0.82 0.22 ± 0.50 < 0.001**    
Mouthing behaviors as chewing on clothes, pica 0.29 ± 0.56 0.64 ± 0.75 0.022
 Application of pressure to abdomen 0.61 ± 0.79 0.25 ± 0.44 0.010*    
  Tapping behaviors 0.15 ± 0.36 0.02 ± 0.13 0.021    
  Sleep disturbances 1.21 ± 0.69 0.64 ± 0.78 0.001**    
  1. Abbreviations: GI Gastrointestinal, No-GI Non-Gastrointestinal, GSI Gastrointestinal Severity Index, VB Verbal behaviors, MB Motor behaviors, C Changes in overall state