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Table 3 Prenatal exposures and pubertal timing, measured by HD:SDSa, in children born 2000–2003, the Danish National Birth Cohort, Denmark

From: Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking in pregnancy, and alcohol intake in pregnancy in relation to pubertal timing in the children

  Boys (n = 22,409) Girls (n = 19,301)
Crude Adjustedb Crude Adjustedb
Prenatal exposures Difference Difference 95% CI Difference Difference 95% CI
Pre-pregnancy BMI
 < 18.5 kg/m2 −0.15 − 0.13 − 0.19, − 0.06 − 0.10 − 0.07 − 0.14, − 0.01
 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 Ref Ref   Ref Ref  
 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 0.17 0.12 0.09, 0.16 0.15 0.10 0.06, 0.13
 30.0+ kg/m2 0.30 0.23 0.18, 0.28 0.26 0.19 0.14, 0.24
 Trend analysis (kg/m2) 0.027 0.021 0.018, 0.024 0.025 0.019 0.015, 0.022
Smoking in pregnancy
 Non-smoker Ref Ref   Ref Ref  
 Stopped smoking −0.01 −0.01 −0.05, 0.04 − 0.03 −0.04 − 0.08, 0.01
 1–9 daily cigarettes −0.01 − 0.02 − 0.07, 0.03 0.05 0.03 −0.02, 0.08
 10–14 daily cigarettes 0.05 0.01 −0.06, 0.08 0.09 0.04 −0.03, 0.11
 15+ daily cigarettes 0.03 −0.02 −0.11, 0.07 0.11 0.02 −0.07, 0.11
 Trend analysis (group) 0.007 −0.003 −0.017, 0.011 0.023 0.008 −0.007, 0.022
Alcohol in pregnancy
 Abstainers Ref Ref   Ref Ref  
 < 1 units weekly − 0.01 0.00 −0.03, 0.03 −0.03 −0.02 −0.05, 0.01
 1–3 units weekly − 0.05 − 0.02 − 0.07, 0.02 −0.05 − 0.02 −0.07, 0.02
 > 3 units weekly − 0.16 − 0.14 − 0.24, − 0.05 − 0.01 0.00 −0.10, 0.09
 Trend analysis (units) −0.027 −0.021 −0.035, − 0.008 − 0.013 − 0.006 − 0.019, 0.007
  1. Abbreviations: BMI Body Mass Index, CI Confidence interval, Ref Reference, HD:SDS Height difference in standard deviations
  2. aA negative HD:SDS indicates later pubertal timing, and a positive HD:SDS indicates earlier pubertal timing
  3. bAdjusted for highest social class of parents, parity, maternal age at delivery, maternal age at menarche and all other exposures (in categories) in this table