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Table 2 Differences in fathers’ involvement in childcare by characteristics (N = 1541)

From: Relationship between paternal psychological distress and involvement in childcare among fathers of preschool-aged children: mediating effect of maternal psychological distress

Characteristics Categories Involvement in childcare (quality) Involvement in childcare (quantity)
M ± SD t or F(p) M ± SD t or F(p)
Father
 Education level High school or lessa 13.99 ± 2.77 10.02 (<.001) a < b,c 2.32 ± 1.62 5.95 (.003) a < c
Collegeb 14.48 ± 2.63 2.50 ± 1.63
University or higherc 14.69 ± 2.53 2.65 ± 1.61
 Religion No 14.33 ± 2.62 −2.48 (.013) 2.41 ± 1.51 −3.55 (<.001)
Yes 14.67 ± 2.64 2.72 ± 1.76
 Smoking Non-smoker 14.76 ± 2.50 4.38 (<.001) 2.72 ± 1.67 4.56 (<.001)
Smoker 14.17 ± 2.73 2.34 ± 1.55
 Alcohol consumption More than once a week 14.30 ± 2.75 −1.39 (.165) 2.39 ± 1.55 −2.07 (.038)
Less than once a week 14.51 ± 2.54 2.57 ± 1.59
Child
 Sex Male 14.40 ± 2.66 −0.10 (.344) 2.58 ± 1.74 1.15 (.250)
Female 14.52 ± 2.61 2.48 ± 1.49
Family
 Household income I (lowest)a 14.20 ± 2.74 3.00 (.030) a < d 2.46 ± 1.79 1.56 (.209)
IIb 14.39 ± 2.57 2.48 ± 1.57
IIIc 14.47 ± 2.65 2.53 ± 1.45
IV (highest)d 14.78 ± 2.59 2.70 ± 1.71