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Table 3 Demographic influence on antibiotic administration throughout lifetime and within the first year of life

From: Early antibiotic exposure and development of asthma and allergic rhinitis in childhood

  12 Months Exposure Lifetime Exposure
Odds Ratio P-Value 95% C.I Odds Ratio P-Value 95% C.I
Gender
 Male Referent      
 Female 0.83 0.05 0.69–1.00 0.78 0.01 0.64–0.94
Race
 White Referent      
 Black 0.68 0.00 0.52–0.89 0.52 0.00 0.40–0.69
 Hispanic 0.60 0.00 0.38–0.75 0.59 0.00 0.47–0.76
 Other 0.89 0.48 0.64–1.23 0.63 0.01 0.44–0.88
Birth
 Vaginal Referent      
 C-section 1.07 0.48 0.89–1.30 1.26 0.02 1.04–1.54
 Term Referent      
 Preterm (< 37 Weeks) 1.92 0.00 1.36–2.73 2.05 0.00 1.33–3.17
 Non-NICU Referent      
 NICU 11.77 0.00 7.95–17.41 6.66 0.00 3.89–11.41
 Normal Birthweight Referent      
 High Birthweight (> 8.8 lbs) 1.13 0.59 0.73–1.75 0.90 0.69 0.55–1.48
 Low Birthweight (< 5.5 lbs) 1.21 0.20 0.91–1.61 1.08 0.62 0.79–1.49
Poverty Status
  < 10% Poverty Referent      
 10–20% Poverty 1.17 0.22 0.95–1.58 1.09 0.83 0.83–1.43
  > 20% Poverty 1.00 0.99 0.79–1.41 0.86 0.64 0.64–1.16