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Table 1 Bivariate analysis of the effects of individual- and community-level factors on childhood stunting less than 5 years in Ethiopia, EDHS 2016

From: Determinants of stunting among under-five children in Ethiopia: a multilevel mixed-effects analysis of 2016 Ethiopian demographic and health survey data

Individual- and community-level characteristics

Weighted sample and stunted (%)

p-value

Current child age

 0–5 moths

1079 (16.21)

P < 0.001

 6–11 moths

999 (17.16)

 12–23 moths

1907 (40.89)

 24–59 moths

5575 (45.74)

Child sex

 Male

4947 (37.93)

P = 0.002

 Female

4344 (34.81)

Live births between births

 No

7770 (38.98)

P = 0.46

 Yes

73 (29.38)

Type of birth

 Single

9364 (37.98)

P < 0.001

 Multiple

226 (55.45)

Preceding birth interval

  < =12 months

224 (52.53)

P = 0.60

  > 12 months

7607 (38.52)

Number of under-five children in the household

 <=2 children

9513 (38.36)

P = 0.093

 > = 3 children

75 (42.74)

Size of child at birth

 Large

2998 (34.83)

P < 0.001

 Medium

1507 (37.28)

 Small

2487 (44.66)

Child has diarrhea in the last week

 No

8418 (38.11)

P = 0.06

 Yes

9150 (40.79)

Child had fever recently

 No

8168 (37.91)

P = 0.141

 Yes

1411 (41.46)

Age of Women

 15–24 years

2198 (38.46)

P = 0.004

 25–34 years

5137 (37.38)

 35–49 years

2335 (40.56)

Women education level

 No education

6294 (41.63)

P < 0.001

 Primary education

2615 (35.34)

 Secondary and above

679 (19.09)

Marital status of women

 Single

50 (37.50)

P = 0.979

 Married

9108 (38.23)

 Separated

424 (40.62)

Maternal occupation

 No

6993 (38.25)

P = 0.540

 Yes

2595 (38.77)

Mothers body mass index

 Over weight

589 (24.44)

P < 0.001

 Normal weight

7038 (38.84)

 Under weight

1865 (41.09)

Number of antenatal care visits

 No visits

2465 (39.79)

P < 0.001

 1–3 visits

2132 (37.82)

 4–20 visits

2160 (30.68)

Place of delivery

 Institution

2688 (31.11)

P < 0.001

 Home

6900 (41.23)

Age of mother at first birth

 11–18 years

4807 (39.44)

P < 0.001

 19–25 years

4394 (37.72)

 26–32 years

360 (33.40)

 33–40 years

27 (28.70)

Father education level

 No education

4299 (42.62)

P < 0.001

 Primary education

3650 (36.52)

 Secondary and above

1092 (25.73)

Father’s occupation

 No

8927 (38.46)

P = 0.007

 Yes

660 (37.46)

Wealth index

 Poor

4291 (43.39)

P < 0.001

 Middle

1974 (35.95)

 Rich

3322 (31.86)

Mass media exposure

 No

1156 (26.86)

P < 0.001

 Yes

8045 (37.79)

Birth order of the last birth

 First

1753 (36.11)

P < 0.001

 2nd and 3rd

2483 (37.04)

 4th and 5th

2291 (39.41)

 6th and above

2588 (40.57)

Religion

 Protestant

2061 (36.93)

P = 0.003

 Muslim

3909 (36.95)

 Orthodox

3327 (40.16)

 Others

290 (47.95)

Place of residence

 Urban

1048 (26.15)

P < 0.001

 Rural

8540 (39.89)

Region

 Addis Ababa

211 (14.68)

P < 0.001

 Afar

91 (40.66)

 Amhara

1878 (47.17)

 Oromia

4203 (36.25)

 Somali

397 (26.98)

 Benishangul

101 (42.83)

 SNNPR

1978 (39.12)

 Gambella

22 (23.33)

 Harari

18 (31.85)

 Tigray

549 (38.85)

 Dire Dawa

36 (41.22)

Source of drinking water

 Unimproved

4134 (40.66)

P = 0.002

 Improved

5310 (36.86)

Source of type of toilet

 Unimproved

5078 (36.65)

P = 0.054

 Improved

4397 (40.48)

Community women poverty

 Low

5511 (36.88)

P < 0.001

 High

4076 (40.44)

Community women institutional delivery

 Low

5560 (39.57)

P < 0.001

 High

3295 (31.05)

Community women primary education

 Low

4789 (39.38)

P = 0.630

 High

4799 (37.41)