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Table 1 Bivariate analysis of the effects of individual- and community-level factors on childhood stunting less than 5 years in Ethiopia, EDHS 2016

From: Determinants of stunting among under-five children in Ethiopia: a multilevel mixed-effects analysis of 2016 Ethiopian demographic and health survey data

Individual- and community-level characteristics Weighted sample and stunted (%) p-value
Current child age
 0–5 moths 1079 (16.21) P < 0.001
 6–11 moths 999 (17.16)
 12–23 moths 1907 (40.89)
 24–59 moths 5575 (45.74)
Child sex
 Male 4947 (37.93) P = 0.002
 Female 4344 (34.81)
Live births between births
 No 7770 (38.98) P = 0.46
 Yes 73 (29.38)
Type of birth
 Single 9364 (37.98) P < 0.001
 Multiple 226 (55.45)
Preceding birth interval
  < =12 months 224 (52.53) P = 0.60
  > 12 months 7607 (38.52)
Number of under-five children in the household
 <=2 children 9513 (38.36) P = 0.093
 > = 3 children 75 (42.74)
Size of child at birth
 Large 2998 (34.83) P < 0.001
 Medium 1507 (37.28)
 Small 2487 (44.66)
Child has diarrhea in the last week
 No 8418 (38.11) P = 0.06
 Yes 9150 (40.79)
Child had fever recently
 No 8168 (37.91) P = 0.141
 Yes 1411 (41.46)
Age of Women
 15–24 years 2198 (38.46) P = 0.004
 25–34 years 5137 (37.38)
 35–49 years 2335 (40.56)
Women education level
 No education 6294 (41.63) P < 0.001
 Primary education 2615 (35.34)
 Secondary and above 679 (19.09)
Marital status of women
 Single 50 (37.50) P = 0.979
 Married 9108 (38.23)
 Separated 424 (40.62)
Maternal occupation
 No 6993 (38.25) P = 0.540
 Yes 2595 (38.77)
Mothers body mass index
 Over weight 589 (24.44) P < 0.001
 Normal weight 7038 (38.84)
 Under weight 1865 (41.09)
Number of antenatal care visits
 No visits 2465 (39.79) P < 0.001
 1–3 visits 2132 (37.82)
 4–20 visits 2160 (30.68)
Place of delivery
 Institution 2688 (31.11) P < 0.001
 Home 6900 (41.23)
Age of mother at first birth
 11–18 years 4807 (39.44) P < 0.001
 19–25 years 4394 (37.72)
 26–32 years 360 (33.40)
 33–40 years 27 (28.70)
Father education level
 No education 4299 (42.62) P < 0.001
 Primary education 3650 (36.52)
 Secondary and above 1092 (25.73)
Father’s occupation
 No 8927 (38.46) P = 0.007
 Yes 660 (37.46)
Wealth index
 Poor 4291 (43.39) P < 0.001
 Middle 1974 (35.95)
 Rich 3322 (31.86)
Mass media exposure
 No 1156 (26.86) P < 0.001
 Yes 8045 (37.79)
Birth order of the last birth
 First 1753 (36.11) P < 0.001
 2nd and 3rd 2483 (37.04)
 4th and 5th 2291 (39.41)
 6th and above 2588 (40.57)
Religion
 Protestant 2061 (36.93) P = 0.003
 Muslim 3909 (36.95)
 Orthodox 3327 (40.16)
 Others 290 (47.95)
Place of residence
 Urban 1048 (26.15) P < 0.001
 Rural 8540 (39.89)
Region
 Addis Ababa 211 (14.68) P < 0.001
 Afar 91 (40.66)
 Amhara 1878 (47.17)
 Oromia 4203 (36.25)
 Somali 397 (26.98)
 Benishangul 101 (42.83)
 SNNPR 1978 (39.12)
 Gambella 22 (23.33)
 Harari 18 (31.85)
 Tigray 549 (38.85)
 Dire Dawa 36 (41.22)
Source of drinking water
 Unimproved 4134 (40.66) P = 0.002
 Improved 5310 (36.86)
Source of type of toilet
 Unimproved 5078 (36.65) P = 0.054
 Improved 4397 (40.48)
Community women poverty
 Low 5511 (36.88) P < 0.001
 High 4076 (40.44)
Community women institutional delivery
 Low 5560 (39.57) P < 0.001
 High 3295 (31.05)
Community women primary education
 Low 4789 (39.38) P = 0.630
 High 4799 (37.41)