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Table 2 Mean, standard deviation and p-value of backpack and total load by school-grade in absolute values and after normalizing for body weight

From: Schoolbag weight carriage in Portuguese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study comparing possible influencing factors

  Backpack Total load
load (kg) load·BW−1 load (kg) load·BW−1
Load (mean)
 5th year 4.99 (1.42) 0.130 (0.044) 5.40 (1.54) 0.140 (0.048)
 9th year 4.06 (1.21) 0.078 (0.027) 4.41 (1.44) 0.085 (0.032)
p < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Max subject’s load (mean)
 5th year 6.25 (1.30) 0.160 (0.047) 6.83 (1.30) 0.177 (0.052)
 9th year 5.13 (1.13) 0.098 (0.029) 5.69 (1.36) 0.111 (0.034)
p < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001