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Table 3 Respiratory support for subjects intubated early (< 15 min from birth) compared with subjects managed initially with non-invasive respiratory support and/or intubated ≥15 min from birth

From: Prospective observational study of early respiratory management in preterm neonates less than 35 weeks of gestation

  Intubated < 15 min of Birth Not intubated < 15 min of Birth
26–28 + 6 weeks 29–32 + 6 weeks 33–34 + 6 weeks Overall (N = 310) 26–28 + 6 weeks 29–32 + 6 weeks 33–34 + 6 weeks Overall (N = 1783)
(N = 157) (N = 111) (N = 42) (N = 221) (N = 724) (N = 838)
Diagnosed with RDS, n (%) 107 (68%) 62 (56%) 18 (43%) 187 (60%) 100 (45%) 268 (37%) 177 (21%) 545 (31%)
Surfactant, n (%) 142 (90%) 90 (81%) 21 (50%) 253 (82%) 118 (53%) 170 (23%) 83 (10%) 371 (21%)
 Standard approach 135 (95%) 82 (91%) 20 (95%) 237 (94%) 87 (74%) 105 (62%) 57 (69%) 249 (67%)
 INSURE 5 (3%) 2 (2%) 0 7 (3%) 22 (19%) 53 (31%) 19 (23%) 94 (25%)
 LISA 0 0 0 0 6 (5%) 8 (5%) 1 (1%) 15 (4%)
 Not available, n (%) 2 (1%) 6 (7%) 1 (5%) 9 (4%) 3 (3%) 4 (2%) 6 (7%) 13 (4%)
Methylxanthines, n (%) 153 (98%) 99 (89%) 9 (21%) 261 (84%) 216 (98%) 509 (70%) 133 (16%) 858 (48%)
 Caffeine, n (%) 147 (96%) 94 (95%) 8 (89%) 249 (95%) 174 (81%) 439 (86%) 123 (92%) 736 (86%)
 Aminophylline, n (%) 5 (4%) 5 (5%) 1 (11%) 11 (5%) 42 (19%) 68 (13%) 9 (7%) 119 (14%)
 Not Available, n (%) 1 (< 1%) 0 0 1 (< 1%) 0 2 (< 1%) 1 (1%) 3 (< 1%)
Started on CPAP, n (%) 8 (5%) 5 (5%) 1 (2%) 14 (5%) 139 (63%) 429 (59%) 307 (37%) 875 (49%)
 CPAP Failure, n (%) 8 (100%) 5 (100%) 1 (100%) 14 (100%) 67 (48%) 109 (25%) 61 (20%) 237 (27%)
Endotracheal Intubation, n (%) 157 (100%) 111 (100%) 42 (100%) 310 (100%) 138 (62%) 165 (23%) 95 (11%) 398 (22%)
  1. Category values are n (%), calculated from N for each group. Subcategory values are n (%), calculated from the category n
  2. Note: endotracheal intubation is intubation at any time