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Table 2 Risk ratios 95% confidence intervals unintentional injuries in highest versus lowest income quintiles analysis

From: Understanding pathways to social inequalities in childhood unintentional injuries: findings from the UK millennium cohort study

Variables

Total sample (n = 14,355)a

FINAL MODEL COMPLETE CASE (n = 10,210)b

Univariable

Multivariable

Risk ratio (RR)

95% LCI

95% UCI

P-value

RR

95% LCI

95% UCI

Household Income Quintiles

 First (refer: highest)

Ref

< 0.001

Ref

 Second

1.12

0.99

1.25

1.08

0.96

1.22

 Third

1.19

1.06

1.33

1.11

0.98

1.26

 Fourth

1.22

1.07

1.38

1.09

0.95

1.26

 Fifth (Lowest)

1.27

1.13

1.43

1.15

0.996

1.34

Baseline Risk Factors

 Child’s sex (Ref: female)

1.22

1.14

1.31

< 0.001

1.22

1.13

1.32

 Child ethnic group (Ref: White)

0.74

0.66

0.82

< 0.001

0.79

0.68

0.91

Maternal age at MCS birth

 35+ years

Ref

< 0.001

Ref

 25–34 years

0.69

0.5

0.93

1.07

0.92

1.25

 20–24 years

0.84

0.76

0.93

0.95

0.82

1.11

 14–19 years

0.99

0.88

1.11

0.77

0.55

1.09

Number of children in the household at birth (including MCS child)

 MCS lone child

Ref

0.01

Ref

 2/3 children

1.1

1.03

1.17

1.10

1.01

1.20

 4 or more children

1.11

0.99

1.25

1.22

1.04

1.44

Factors That May Influence Environmental Safety

 Safe areas to play at home at 9 months (Ref: No safe areas)

1.06

0.99

1.12

0.08

1.00

0.92

1.08

Items of named safety equipment used at 9 months

 None

Ref

0.04

Ref

 1 piece

1.13

0.87

1.47

1.15

0.79

1.66

 2 pieces

1.28

1.01

1.63

1.25

0.9

1.74

 3 pieces

1.32

1.04

1.67

1.36

0.98

1.89

 4 pieces

1.34

1.06

1.7

1.36

0.98

1.90

 5 pieces

1.33

1.04

1.71

1.36

0.97

1.92

 Access to a garden at 9 months (Ref: No access)

1.05

0.91

1.21

0.49

Type of childcare used MCSc age 3

 None (parents look after child)

Ref

0.09

Ref

 Registered childcare provider

0.91

0.83

1

0.99

0.89

1.10

 Non-registered childcare provider (e.g. family, friends)

0.94

0.85

1.04

1.03

0.91

1.17

 Household pets MCSc age 3 (ref: No pets)

1.14

1.07

1.21

< 0.001

1.04

0.97

1.12

 Household smoking MCSc age 3 (ref: None)

1.15

1.05

1.26

< 0.001

1.01

0.90

1.13

 Poor home safety (HOME score) MCSc age 3

1.20

0.93

1.55

0.17

 Responder feels unsafe in area MCSc age 3

1.12

1.03

1.22

0.01

1.08

0.98

1.19

Disorganised home environment MCSc age 3

 Very organised

Ref

< 0.001

Ref

 Organised

1.09

1

1.18

1.05

0.95

1.15

 Average

1.15

1.02

1.29

1.11

0.98

1.27

Disorganised

1.16

1.02

1.31

1.06

0.92

1.22

Very disorganised

1.61

1.32

1.95

1.35

1.09

1.67

Factors That May Influence Supervision

Maternal distress at 3 yrs. (Ref: Kessler < 5)

1.33

1.12

1.59

0.01

1.18

0.94

1.47

Limiting long term condition MCSc age 3 (Ref: none)

1.16

1.07

1.26

< 0.001

1.08

0.98

1.19

Alcohol units per week (MCSc age 3)

None

Ref

0.58

1–6 units

0.98

0.92

1.05

7–14 units

1.04

0.93

1.16

15 or more units+

1.1

0.92

1.32

Approach to parenting MCSc age 3 (Ref: Unstructured)

1

0.93

1.06

0.71

Family and friends live nearby, MCSc age 3 (Ref: both)

Both

Ref

0.19

Family only

1.06

0.95

1.17

Friends only

0.95

0.89

1.02

Neither nearby

1.00

0.91

1.11

Factors Relating To The Mcs Child’s Abilities And Behaviours

Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), MCSc age 3

Average

Ref

< 0.001

Ref

Borderline

0.06

1.03

1.26

1.05

0.93

1.19

Below average

1.32

1.19

1.46

1.16

1.03

1.32

Sight concerns, MCSc age 3

1.02

0.9

1.15

0.75

Hearing concerns, MCSc age 3

1.08

0.95

1.23

0.24

Child is NOT school ready, MCSc age 3

0.91

0.82

1.00

0.06

1.06

0.96

1.18

  1. awhen P < 0.1 (if rounded 1 d.p.) variables were included in the complete case, multivariable analysis. b Using sample comprising complete cases for all variables in final multivariable analysis. + 15 or more units is in excess of UK Guidance for all adult