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Table 2 Risk ratios 95% confidence intervals unintentional injuries in highest versus lowest income quintiles analysis

From: Understanding pathways to social inequalities in childhood unintentional injuries: findings from the UK millennium cohort study

Variables Total sample (n = 14,355)a FINAL MODEL COMPLETE CASE (n = 10,210)b
Univariable Multivariable
Risk ratio (RR) 95% LCI 95% UCI P-value RR 95% LCI 95% UCI
Household Income Quintiles
 First (refer: highest) Ref < 0.001 Ref
 Second 1.12 0.99 1.25 1.08 0.96 1.22
 Third 1.19 1.06 1.33 1.11 0.98 1.26
 Fourth 1.22 1.07 1.38 1.09 0.95 1.26
 Fifth (Lowest) 1.27 1.13 1.43 1.15 0.996 1.34
Baseline Risk Factors
 Child’s sex (Ref: female) 1.22 1.14 1.31 < 0.001 1.22 1.13 1.32
 Child ethnic group (Ref: White) 0.74 0.66 0.82 < 0.001 0.79 0.68 0.91
Maternal age at MCS birth
 35+ years Ref < 0.001 Ref
 25–34 years 0.69 0.5 0.93 1.07 0.92 1.25
 20–24 years 0.84 0.76 0.93 0.95 0.82 1.11
 14–19 years 0.99 0.88 1.11 0.77 0.55 1.09
Number of children in the household at birth (including MCS child)
 MCS lone child Ref 0.01 Ref
 2/3 children 1.1 1.03 1.17 1.10 1.01 1.20
 4 or more children 1.11 0.99 1.25 1.22 1.04 1.44
Factors That May Influence Environmental Safety
 Safe areas to play at home at 9 months (Ref: No safe areas) 1.06 0.99 1.12 0.08 1.00 0.92 1.08
Items of named safety equipment used at 9 months
 None Ref 0.04 Ref
 1 piece 1.13 0.87 1.47 1.15 0.79 1.66
 2 pieces 1.28 1.01 1.63 1.25 0.9 1.74
 3 pieces 1.32 1.04 1.67 1.36 0.98 1.89
 4 pieces 1.34 1.06 1.7 1.36 0.98 1.90
 5 pieces 1.33 1.04 1.71 1.36 0.97 1.92
 Access to a garden at 9 months (Ref: No access) 1.05 0.91 1.21 0.49
Type of childcare used MCSc age 3
 None (parents look after child) Ref 0.09 Ref
 Registered childcare provider 0.91 0.83 1 0.99 0.89 1.10
 Non-registered childcare provider (e.g. family, friends) 0.94 0.85 1.04 1.03 0.91 1.17
 Household pets MCSc age 3 (ref: No pets) 1.14 1.07 1.21 < 0.001 1.04 0.97 1.12
 Household smoking MCSc age 3 (ref: None) 1.15 1.05 1.26 < 0.001 1.01 0.90 1.13
 Poor home safety (HOME score) MCSc age 3 1.20 0.93 1.55 0.17
 Responder feels unsafe in area MCSc age 3 1.12 1.03 1.22 0.01 1.08 0.98 1.19
Disorganised home environment MCSc age 3
 Very organised Ref < 0.001 Ref
 Organised 1.09 1 1.18 1.05 0.95 1.15
 Average 1.15 1.02 1.29 1.11 0.98 1.27
Disorganised 1.16 1.02 1.31 1.06 0.92 1.22
Very disorganised 1.61 1.32 1.95 1.35 1.09 1.67
Factors That May Influence Supervision
Maternal distress at 3 yrs. (Ref: Kessler < 5) 1.33 1.12 1.59 0.01 1.18 0.94 1.47
Limiting long term condition MCSc age 3 (Ref: none) 1.16 1.07 1.26 < 0.001 1.08 0.98 1.19
Alcohol units per week (MCSc age 3)
None Ref 0.58
1–6 units 0.98 0.92 1.05
7–14 units 1.04 0.93 1.16
15 or more units+ 1.1 0.92 1.32
Approach to parenting MCSc age 3 (Ref: Unstructured) 1 0.93 1.06 0.71
Family and friends live nearby, MCSc age 3 (Ref: both)
Both Ref 0.19
Family only 1.06 0.95 1.17
Friends only 0.95 0.89 1.02
Neither nearby 1.00 0.91 1.11
Factors Relating To The Mcs Child’s Abilities And Behaviours
Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), MCSc age 3
Average Ref < 0.001 Ref
Borderline 0.06 1.03 1.26 1.05 0.93 1.19
Below average 1.32 1.19 1.46 1.16 1.03 1.32
Sight concerns, MCSc age 3 1.02 0.9 1.15 0.75
Hearing concerns, MCSc age 3 1.08 0.95 1.23 0.24
Child is NOT school ready, MCSc age 3 0.91 0.82 1.00 0.06 1.06 0.96 1.18
  1. awhen P < 0.1 (if rounded 1 d.p.) variables were included in the complete case, multivariable analysis. b Using sample comprising complete cases for all variables in final multivariable analysis. + 15 or more units is in excess of UK Guidance for all adult