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Table 1 Percentage of each variable in household income quintiles using the total cohort sample (N = 14,355)

From: Understanding pathways to social inequalities in childhood unintentional injuries: findings from the UK millennium cohort study

Variables Income quintile Total P-valueb
First (Highest) Second Third Fourth Fifth (lowest) Percent (count)
Count of child in each quintile 2490 2695 2771 3138 3261 14,553
Unintentional injuries between 3 and 5 years old 24.0 26.9 28.7 29.4 31.0 28.0 (4019) < 0.001
Baseline Risks
 MCS child (MCSc) is male, recorded at 9 months old 51.3 50.7 51.7 50.8 50.4 51.0 (7335) 0.09
 MCSc from non-white ethnic group recorded at 9 months old 8.0 5.5 8.5 16.6 23.4 12.1 (1919) < 0.001
Maternal age at birth, recorded at 9 months old
 14–19 years 0.5 1.5 4.2 9.0 23.1 7.7 (1114) < 0.001
 20–24 years 3.0 8.3 16.8 25.8 29.1 16.6 (2551)
 25–34 years 94.6 88.6 78.2 64.0 46.8 74.4 (10494)
 35+ years 2.0 1.6 0.8 1.3 1.0 1.3 (195)
Number of children in the household at birth (including MCSc) recorded at 9 months old
 MCS lone child 56.8 43.0 40.0 31.6 39.4 42.1 (6008) < 0.001
 2/3 children 41.1 54.3 54.8 56.5 47.9 50.9 (7226)
 4 or more children 2.2 2.7 5.3 11.9 12.7 7.0 (1121)
Factors That May Influence Environmental Safety
 No safe areas to play, MCSc 9 months old 20.4 25.4 34.1 43.0 51.0 34.8 (5367) < 0.001
Items of named safety equipment used, MCSc 9 months old (count)a
 None 0.4 0.4 0.7 3.5 7.6 2.5 (452) < 0.001
 1 piece 3.5 3.8 5.6 11.4 17.6 8.4 (1280)
 2 pieces 18.8 17.6 19.8 22.7 25.4 20.9 (3081)
 3 pieces 25.9 25.3 26.6 26.1 23.8 25.6 (3739)
 4 pieces 31.0 33.4 31.2 23.8 17.3 27.4 (3724)
 5 pieces 20.3 19.6 16.1 12.4 8.2 15.3 (2075)
 No garden, MCSc age 3 1.5 2.3 4.1 9.8 17.0 6.7 (873) < 0.001
Type of childcare used, MCSc age 3
 Parent care only 47.8 56.2 67.0 84.6 93.5 69.2 (8858) < 0.001
 Registered childcare (e.g. Ofsted inspected nursery) 19.0 26.2 24.9 12.4 5.1 17.8 (2479)
 Non-registered childcare (e.g. family, friends) 33.2 17.6 8.1 3.1 1.4 13.0 (1575)
 Has a household pets, MCSc age 3 42.5 50.8 54.8 51.8 45.8 49.1 (6029) < 0.001
 Poor home safety (HOME score), MCSc age 3 0.1 1.1 0.9 2.3 3.8 1.6 (191) < 0.001
 Exposed to household smoking, MCSc age 3 5.2 6.9 13.3 24.5 36.8 16.9 (2217) < 0.001
 Responder feels unsafe in area, MCSc age 3 5.4 5.6 10.3 17.0 23.0 12.0 (1656) < 0.001
Disorganised home environment, MCSc age 3
 Very organised 25.0 22.3 19.3 17.4 15.8 20.1 (2608) < 0.001
 Organised 57.2 56.5 55.6 50.5 48.2 53.7 (6967)
 Average 10.2 11.4 13.5 15.5 16.3 13.3 (1668)
 Disorganised 6.3 8.6 10.0 13.7 16.2 10.8 (1379)
 Very disorganised 1.3 1.2 1.6 2.9 3.5 2.1 (261)
Factors that may influence supervision
 Primary carer distressed, MCSc age 3 0.7 1.0 2.2 3.4 5.9 2.5 (302) < 0.001
 Primary carer Limiting long term condition, MCSc age 3 15.9 18.5 22.0 26.6 25.4 21.51 (2841) < 0.001
Primary caregiver alcohol units per week, MCSc age 3
 None 34.5 49.9 62.0 71.5 76.3 58.9 (8947) < 0.001
 1–6 units 43.7 36.2 28.2 19.7 14.5 28.4 (3735)
 7–14 units 18.2 11.4 8.0 6.8 6.3 10.1 (1349)
 15 or more units (exceeding current UK Guidance) 3.6 2.5 1.8 1.9 2.9 2.5 (317)
 Has an unstructured parenting style (e.g. few rules) MCSc age 3 45.3 49.4 57.3 61.9 65.3 55.5 (7068) < 0.001
Family and friends live nearby MCSc age 3
 Both 40.0 50.8 55.8 52.5 50.7 50.0 (7285) < 0.001
 Family only 5.0 6.8 8.8 9.6 12.4 8.5 (1350)
 Friends only 40.3 30.6 23.8 23.7 21.3 27.9 (3796)
 Neither nearby 14.7 11.8 11.6 14.3 15.6 13.6 (1906)
Factors relating to the mcs child’s abilities and behaviours
 Score from Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) MCSc age 3, graded as:
  Average 90.0 88.6 81.1 72.8 63.6 79.9 (9607) < 0.001
  Borderline 6.4 7.4 11.0 12.5 14.9 10.2 (1258)
  Below average 3.7 4.1 7.9 14.7 21.6 9.9 (1248)
  Sight concerns, MCSc age 3 5.1 5.8 6.4 6.0 6.1 5.9 (566) 0.19
  Hearing concerns, MCSc age 3 5.4 4.0 4.2 4.2 4.0 4.3 (853) 0.52
  Child is NOT school ready, MCSc age 3 3.5 5.3 9.4 18.2 26.5 12.1 (1586) < 0.001
  1. N = 14,355 with further missing data for some named variables as: Child: minority/ ethnic (n = 1454), Strength and difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at age 3 (n = 2242), School readiness (n = 2712), hearing concerns at 3 yrs old (n = 69, sight concern at 3 yrs old (n = 59) Maternal age at MCS birth (n = 1), Mum has a LLTC at 3 years (n = 1471) Levels of distress: Kessler score > 5 (n = 2719), Parenting style (n = 1936), Alcohol (n = 7), Social network(n = 18), Number of children in household (n = 563), Household pet (n = 1392), Household smoking at 3 yrs old (n = 1471), No safe places to play at 9 months (n = 180), No safety equipment at 9 months (n = 4), safe areas to play at 3 yrs (n = 2365), Childcare type (n = 1443), Responder feels safe (n = 1471), disorganised home (n = 1472)
  2. a List safety equipment includes [no particular order]: stairgate, fireguard, plug socket covers, car seat, and smoke alarm
  3. b Chi squared test