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Table 1 Characteristics and clinical outcomes of neonates who received antibiotics pre- and post-ASP implementation

From: Prospective audit and feedback on antibiotic use in neonatal intensive care: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristic Pre-ASP cohort (N = 864) During ASP cohort (N = 716) p-value
Birth weight (grams), median (IQR) 1960 (1223, 2888) 1920 (1180, 2910) 0.49
Gestational age (weeks), median (IQR) 33 (29, 37) 33 (29, 37) 0.55
SNAP II score, median (IQR) 10 (5, 19) 10 (5, 17) 0.19
Length of stay, median (IQR) 9 (4, 23) 8.5 (4.0, 25.0) 1.00
Antibiotic-free days, median (IQR) 6.0 (1.0–21.0) 6.0 (1.0–24.0) 1.00
Death, N (%) 32 (3.7) 27 (3.8) 1.00
Necrotizing enterocolitis, N (%) 13 (1.5) 19 (2.7) 0.16
Candidemia, N (%) 1 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 1.00
Culture-positive bacterial sepsis 83 (9.6) 64 (8.9) 0.64
 Number of episodesa, N (%) 103 (9.3) 77 (8.3) 0.45
 Episodes of bacteremia, N (%) 58 (56.3) 35 (45.4) 0.15
 CoNS (N isolates) 28 21 0.33
 Antibiotic days, median (IQR) 10.0 (7.0, 13.2) 9.0 (7.0,12.0) 0.24
Escherichia coli (N isolates) 11 7 0.41
 Antibiotic days, median (IQR) 17.0 (3.0,20.0) 16.0 (5.5,20.0) 0.89
Culture-negative late-onset sepsis, N (%) 58 (6.7) 56 (7.8) 0.40
 Number of episodes a,b, N (%) 192 (17.4) 179 (19.4) 0.30
 GA ≤ 28 weeks, N (%) 124 (64.6) 113 (63.1) 0.86
 GA 29–33 weeks, N (%) 33 (17.2) 43 (24.0) 0.15
 GA ≥ 34 weeks, N (%) 35 (18.2) 23 (12.8) 0.19
  1. aThere were 1096 episodes pre-ASP and 907 episodes during the ASP period
  2. bThere was no GA information for 6 neonates in the pre-ASP period and 3 neonates in the post-ASP period
  3. ASP antimicrobial stewardship program, CoNS coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species, GA gestational age, IQR interquartile range