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Table 4 Relationship between standard coefficient beta and gender, age and education for Question 16 and 21 (N = 570)

From: Parents’ self-directed practices towards the use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Statement SA
N(%)
A
N(%)
Uncertain
N(%)
D
N (%)
SD
N(%)
Gender
OR (95% CI)
Age
OR (95% CI)
Education
OR (95% CI)
Q16A 29 (5.1) 99 (17.1) 99 (17.1) 197 (34.6) 128 (22%) −.035 (− 0.599, 0.245) −0.115 (− 0.426, − 0.061) * −0.062 (− 0.099, 0.015)
Q16B 45 (7.9) 151 (26.5) 139 (24.4) 156 (27.4) 53 (9.3) 0.05 (−0.163, 0.652) −0.137 (− 0.457, − 0.104) * −0.008 (− 0.061, 0.050)
Q16C 83 (14.6) 222 (38.9) 119 (20.9) 103 (18.1) 35 (6.1) −0.004 (− 0.394, 0.355) −0.054 (− 0.263, 0.062) −0.055 (− 0.084, 0.018)
Q16D 61 (10.7) 201 (35.3) 205 (36) 67 (11.8) 26 (4.6) 0.024 (−0.238, 0.430) 0.009 (−0.129, 0.160) − 0.054 (− 0.74, 0.016)
Q16E 26 (4.6) 49 (8.6) 124 (21.8) 202 (35.4) 153 (26.8) 0.115 (0.150, 0.950) * 0.046 (−0.081, 0.266) −0.011 (− 0.061, 0.047)
Q16F 133 (23.3) 143 (25.1) 143 (26.8) 86 (15.1) 42 (7.4) −0.022 (− 0.508, 0.297) −0.169 (− 0.519, − 0.169) −0.011 (− 0.055, 0.054)
Q16G 68 (11.9) 181 (31.8) 214 (37.5) 66 (11.8) 28 (4.9) −0.026 (− 0.450, 0.234) −0.152 (− 0.411, − 0.115) * −0.085 (− 0.093, 0.000) *
21A 166 (29.1) 202 (35.4) 72 (12.6) 69 (12.1) 41 (7.2) −0.066 (− 0.086, 0.734) −0.079 (− 0.0341, 0.014) −0.08 (− 0.108, 0.003)
21B 43 (7.5) 93 (16.3) 124 (21.8) 120 (29.8) 112 (19.6) 0.092 (0.041, 0.914) * −0.053 (− 0.305, 0.072) −0.052 (− 0.095, 0.023)
21C 59 (10.4) 164 (28.8) 116 (20.4) 88 (15.4) 123 (21.6) 0.013 (−0.386, 0.527) −0.058 (− 0.331, 0.066) −0.014 (− 0.072, 0.052)
  1. Linear logistic regression, * = significant (p < 0.05); gender (ref male); age (20–30 years); Education (primary school)
  2. SA Strongly Approve, A Approve, N Neutral, D Disapprove, SD Strongly Disapprove
  3. Q16 A: Antibiotic must be administered in any case, once a child has fever?
  4. Q16 B: As most of the Upper Respiratory Infections (like colds, flu, sore throats, ear infection) are of viral cause, they must not be cured with antibiotics?
  5. Q16 C: If a child suffers from a flu or a cold, it will be cured more quickly if it is resistant bacteria?
  6. Q16 D: Scientists can always produce new antibiotics that are able to kill the resistant bacteria?
  7. Q16 E: Antibiotics do not have side - effects?
  8. Q16 F: When antibiotics are administered when there is no special reason, their efficacy decreases and bacteria become more resistant?
  9. Q16 G: Antibiotics decrease the complications of an Upper Respiratory Tract Infection?
  10. Q21A: Do you believe antibiotics are used too much?
  11. Q21B: Would you change your pediatrician because in your opinion he/she does not prescribe antibiotics often enough for your child?
  12. Q21C: Would you change pediatrician because in your opinion he/she prescribe antibiotics for your child very often?
  13. Q(A): If your pediatrician prescribes an antibiotic, how often do you ask him/her if it is actually necessary?
  14. Q(B): How often do you praise a pediatrician if he/she prefers not to prescribe antibiotics?
  15. Q(C): How often does your pediatrician recommend antibiotic therapy by phone?
  16. Q(D): In case you strongly wish your child to receive antibiotics, how often do you directly ask your pediatrician for them?
  17. Q(E): How often do you follow all your pediatrician’s instructions and advice?
  18. Q(F): How often do you urge your pediatrician to prescribe antibiotic even when the diagnosis is not confirmed?
  19. Q(G): How often does your pediatrician explain to you about your child’s condition and if they should or shouldn’t receive antibiotics?
  20. Q(H): How often do you think that your pediatrician prescribes antibiotics only because you asked him/her?