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Table 1 Characteristics of 378 overweight and obese children and adolescents

From: Insulin metabolism markers are predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis among overweight and obese children and adolescents

  Total (n = 378) Girls (n = 180) Boys (n = 198) P-value
Age (years) 9.3 ± 1.7 9.2 ± 1.7 9.4 ± 1.8 0.326
Pre-pubertal (%) 18.3 15.0 21.3 0.113
Physical activity (MET/hr./wk) 13.3 (5.1–31.7) 8.9 (3.3–17.9) 20.1 (7.9–41.2) < 0.001
Watching TV (hour/d)
  ≤ 1 14.1 14.2 13.9 0.024
 2–3 38.6 45.5 32.5  
  ≥ 4 47.3 40.3 53.6  
Height (cm) 139.7 ± 11.0 138.9 ± 10.9 140.5 ± 11.0 0.142
Z-Score Height 0.86 ± 1.00 0.80 ± 1.07 0.91 ± 0.93 0.291
BMI (kg/m2) 23.3 ± 3.4 22.8 ± 3.2 23.8 ± 3.4 0.004
Z-Score BMI 2.55 ± 0.73 2.34 ± 0.83 2.74 ± 0.83 < 0.001
Obese (%) 68.8 55.6 80.8 < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 80.8 ± 9.5 79.4 ± 8.9 82.0 ± 10.0 0.009
Abdominal obesity (%) 92.6 93.1 92.1 0.705
Fat mass (%) 26.3 ± 6.9 28.6 ± 4.2 24.2 ± 8.1 < 0.001
Soft-lean mass (kg) 30.7 ± 7.2 29.1 ± 6.6 32.2 ± 7.3 < 0.001
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 90.7 ± 9.3 91.5 ± 8.6 89.9 ± 9.9 0.103
Fasting insulin (μU/ml) 12.4 (8.5–19.0) 12.9 (9.3–20.6) 11.9 (7.9–18.2) 0.085
HOMA-IR 2.80 (1.92–4.34) 3.00 (2.02–4.56) 2.66 (1.67–4.13) 0.048
QUICKI 0.333 ± 0.040 0.328 ± 0.031 0.338 ± 0.046 0.023
Carotid intima media thickness (mm) 0.40 ± 0.057 0.40 ± 0.004 0.41 ± 0.060 0.100
  1. BMI body mass index, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, QUICKI quantitative insulin sensitivity check index
  2. Quantitative variables were expressed as the mean ± SD or median (interquartile range) and categorical ones as percentages
  3. Abdominal obesity was defined based on national age- and sex-specific 90th percentile (1)