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Table 4 Independent associations of socio-demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle characteristics with MHO status

From: Prevalence and predictors of metabolically healthy obesity in adolescents: findings from the national “Jeeluna” study in Saudi-Arabia

Model-IDF definition* OR (95%CI) p-value
Among All
 BMI (kg/m2) 0.89 (0.84–0.93) < 0.0001
 WC (cm) 0.97 (0.96–0.98) < 0.0001
Model-CR definition*
 Female Gender 1.76 (1.29–2.41) 0.0004
 BMI (kg/m2) 0.97 (0.94–1.00) 0.06
 Number of days went to sleep during the day in the past week 1.06 (1.00–1.12) 0.04
Among Boys
Model-IDF definition*   
 BMI (kg/m2) 0.91 (0.85–0.96) 0.001
 WC (cm) 0.97 (0.96–0.99) < 0.0001
 Frequency of vegetable consumption/d, ≥2/day 1.77 (1.07–2.91) 0.02
 Number of sleep hours during week days, adequate 1.51 (0.99–2.35) 0.07
 Number of days went to sleep during the day in the past week 1.07 (0.99–1.16) 0.08
Model-CR definition*
 Father’s level of education, intermediate-high school 0.60 (0.39–0.92) 0.02
Among Girls   
Model-IDF definition*
 BMI (kg/m2) 0.84 (0.77–0.92) 0.0001
 WC (cm) 0.97 (0.96–0.99) 0.0005
Model-CR definition*
 BMI (kg/m2) 0.95 (0.89–1.00) 0.06
 Frequency of soft drinks consumption/d, ≤1/day 0.49 (0.30–0.81) 0.006
  1. *For each definition of MHO, the variables included in the model were: age (by unit increase of 1 year), gender (reference: male), BMI (by unit increase of 1 kg/m2), waist circumference (by unit increase of 1 cm), father’s level of education (reference: lowest), frequency of vegetables’ consumption per day (reference: 0), Frequency of soft drinks’ consumption per day (reference: ≥2), Number of sleep hours per night, during week days (reference: < 9 h for 6–12 years old; < 8 h for those aged 13 years and above), number of days went to sleep during the day (by unit increase of 1 day). Since the model included age and gender as variables, we included BMI in the regression model instead of BMI-zcore, given that the latter already adjusts for inter-individual differences in age and sex
  2. Abbreviations: BMI: Body mass index; CI: Confidence interval; cm: Centimeters; CR: Cardiovascular risks; hrs: Hours; IDF: International Diabetes Federation; kg/m2: Kilograms per squared meters; MHO: Metabolically healthy obesity; OR: Odds ratio; WC: Waist circumference