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Table 1 Population characteristics at child’s birth and association with child Medicaid disenrollment

From: Maternal and child patterns of Medicaid retention: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics N (%) Any gap > 14 day gap > 60 day gap
Children with no gap
N(%)
Children with gap
N(%)
P-valuea Children with no gap
N(%)
Children with gap
N(%)
P-valuea Children with no gap
N(%)
Children with gap
N(%)
P-valuea
Total sample 604 450(75) 154(25)   469(78) 135(22)   502(83) 102(17)  
Child gender
 Male 308(51) 224(50) 84(55) 0.30 236(50) 72(53) 0.53 254(51) 54(53) 0.66
 Female 296(49) 226(50) 70(45)   233(50) 63(47)   248(49) 48(47)  
Maternal age
 Under 18 54(9) 39(9) 15(10) 0.92 40(9) 14(10) 0.74 42(8) 12(12) 0.48
 18–24 349(58) 261(58) 88(57)   274(58) 75(56)   294(59) 55(54)  
 25 and over 201(33) 150(33) 51(33)   155(33) 46(34)   166(33) 35(34)  
Maternal race
 African American 569(94) 427(95) 142(92) 0.21 444(95) 125(93) 0.36 475(95) 94(92) 0.33
 Otherb 35(6) 23(5) 12(8)   25(5) 10(7)   27(5) 8(8)  
Maternal education
 Less than High School 198(33) 153(34) 45(29) 0.51 159(34) 39(29) 0.54 168(33) 30(29) 0.69
 High School 147(24) 109(24) 38(25)   113(24) 34(25)   122(24) 25(25)  
 More than High School 259(43) 188(42) 71(46)   197(42) 62(46)   212(42) 47(46)  
Maternal health literacy*
 Inadequate 56(9) 38(8) 19(12) <.0001 41(9) 16(12) 0.0021 46(9) 11(11) 0.05
 Marginal 80(13) 58(13) 21(14)   61(13) 19(14)   69(14) 11(11)  
 Adequate 467(77) 353(78) 115(75)   367(78) 100(74)   387(77) 80(78)  
Other children in household
 None 228(38) 158(35) 70(45) 0.073 169(36) 59(44) 0.26 181(36) 47(46) 0.062
 One 157(26) 122(27) 35(23)   126(27) 31(23)   139(28) 18(18)  
 Two or more 219(36) 170(38) 49(32)   174(37) 45(33)   182(36) 37(36)  
Prenatal Care, self-reported*
 All/Most of the time 553(92) 411(91) 142(92) 0.28 428(91) 125(93) 0.11 458(91) 95(93) 0.04
 Some/None of the time 51(9) 39(9) 12(8)   41(9) 10(7)   44(9) 7(7)  
Maternal self-reported health
 Score < 80 (poor health) 224(37) 163(36) 61(40) 0.45 169(36) 55(41) 0.32 181(36) 43(42) 0.24
 Score ≥ 80 (good health) 380(63) 287(64) 93(60)   300(64) 80(60)   321(64) 59(58)  
Maternal knowledge that TANF and Medicaid eligibility criteria are different
 Yes 492(81) 377(84) 115(75) <.0001 387(83) 105(78) <.0001 412(82) 80(78) 0.006
 No 112(19) 73(16) 39(25)   82(17) 30(22)   90(18) 22(22)  
Travel time to Medicaid office*
  < 30 min 410(68) 305(68) 105(68) 0.93 320(68) 90(67) 0.73 341(68) 69(68) 0.96
  ≥ 30 min 194(32) 145(32) 49(32)   149(32) 45(33)   161(32) 33(32)  
Household income*
  < $1000/month 410(68) 312(69) 98(64) <.0001 325(69) 85(63) <.0001 350(70) 60(59) <.0001
 $1000 or more/month 194(32) 138(31) 56(36)   145(31) 50(37)   152(30) 42(41)  
Marital status
 Single/Divorced/Widowed 533(88) 404(90) 129(84) 0.045 422(90) 111(82) 0.013 452(90) 81(79) 0.002
 Married 71(12) 46(10) 25(16)   47(10) 24(18)   50(10) 21(21)  
Maternal employment status*
 Student 152(25) 118(26) 34(22) <.0001 123(26) 29(21) <.0001 127(25) 26(25) 0.0002
 Full Time 245(41) 172(38) 72(47)   181(39) 63(47)   198(39) 47(46)  
 Unemployed 207(34) 160(36) 48(31)   164(35) 43(32)   177(35) 30(29)  
Family housing situation
 Lives in own housing 243(40) 234(52) 61(40) 0.890 245(52) 51(38) 0.40 262(52) 38(37) 0.30
 Rents or lives with relative 361(60) 216(48) 93(60)   224(48) 84(62)   240(48) 64(63)  
Maternal social support*
 Low 190(32) 134(30) 56(36) <.0001 143(30) 47(35) <.0001 157(31) 33(32) <.0001
 Medium 135(22) 98(22) 37(24)   102(22) 33(24)   108(22) 27(26)  
 High 153(25) 102(23) 51(33)   106(23) 47(35)   113(23) 40(39)  
 Not collected 126(21) 116(26) 10(7)   118(25) 8(6)   124(25) 2(2)  
  1. Notes: Maternal health literacy was assessed using the S-TOFHLA and categorized as inadequate, marginal, or adequate per published technical guidance (Nurss JR, Parker R, Willams M, Baker D. TOFHLA Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Second ed. Snow Camp, NC: Peppercorn Books & Press; 2001). Maternal self-reported health was assessed using the SF-36® (Ware JE, Jr., Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Med. Care. Jun 1992;30(6):473–483). Maternal instrumental and relational social support was assessed using the Maternal Social Support Index and categorized low, medium, or high using tertiles per published technical guidance (Pascoe JM, Ialongo NS, Horn WF, Reinhart MA, Perradatto D. The reliability and validity of the maternal social support index. Fam. Med. Jul-Aug 1988;20(4):271–27)
  2. ap-value is for the χ2 test of association
  3. bIncludes Hispanic, Asian and “Ethnically-Challenged” (as self-reported)
  4. *Results from 10 imputed datasets. Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding
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