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Table 1 Temperature monitoring site/method used by paediatricians participating in the 2012 and 2015 surveys and type of thermometer recommended

From: Knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of Italian healthcare professionals regarding fever management in children

  2012 n (%; 95% CI) n = 300 2015 n (%; 95% CI) n = 562 P
Children < 1 year of age
 Axillary* 118 (39.3; 33.8–44.9) 283 (50.4; 46.2–54.5) 0.001
 Rectal 124 (41.3; 35.8–46.9) 192 (34.2; 30.2–38.1) 0.020
 Groin crease 38 (12.7; 8.9–16.4) 71 (12.6; 9.9–15.4) 0.980
 Oral 0 (0.0; 0.0–0.0) 1 (0.2; 0.0–0.5) 0.950
 Auricular 18 (6.1; 3.3–8.7) 7 (1.2; 0.3–2.2) < 0.0001
 Forehead 2 (0.6; 0.0–1.6) 8 (1.4; 0.4–2.4) < 0.0001
Children > 1 year of age
 Axillary* 242 (80.7; 76.2–85.1) 502 (89.3; 86.8–91.9) 0.0003
 Rectal 9 (3.0; 1.1–4.9) 20 (3.6; 2.0–5.1) 0.660
 Groin crease 15 (5.0; 2.5–7.5) 24 (4.3; 2.6–5.9) 0.630
 Oral 2 (0.7; 0.0–1.6) 1 (0.2; 0.0–0.5) 0.240
 Auricular 29 (9.6; 6.3–13.0) 6 (1.1; 0.2–1.9) < 0.0001
 Forehead 3 (1.0; 0.0–2.1) 10 (1.8; 0.7–2.9) 0.370
Type of recommended thermometer
 Digital* 203 (67.7; 62.4–73.0) 385 (68.5; 64.7–72.3) 0.430
 Auricular 15 (5.0; 2.5–7.5) 9 (1.6; 0.6–2.6) 0.003
 Other** 32 (10.6; 7.2–14.2) 168 (29.8; 26.1–33.7) < 0.0001
  1. Note: * right answer according to the Guidelines of the Italian Paediatric Society
  2. **mercury, skin infrared, plastic streap placed forehead, dummy-pacifier style thermometers