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Table 3 Maternal and newborn characteristics of moderate and severe INH and factors associated with severe INH

From: Indirect neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in hospitalized neonates on the Thai-Myanmar border: a review of neonatal medical records from 2009 to 2014

Characteristics Moderate INH, n=1368a Severe INH, n=212a OR [95%CI] p-value AORb [95%CI] p-value
Maternal characteristics
 Site, n (%)
  Migrant 464 (33.9) 60 (28.3) 1 0.107
  Refugee 904 (66.1) 152 (71.7) 1.3 [0.9–1.8]   
 Ethnicity, n (%)
  Karen 1014/1348 (75.2) 151/198 (76.3) 1 0.434
  Burman 230/1348 (17.1) 28/198 (13.2) 0.8 [0.5–1.2]  
  Other 104/1348 (7.7) 19/198 (9.0) 1.2 [0.7–2.1]  
 Age in years, median, (IQR) 24 (20–30) 23 (20–31) 1.0 [0.9–1.0] 0.777
 Literacy, n (%) 846/1280 (66.1) 101/162 (62.3) 0.9 [0.6–1.2] 0.347
 Smoking, n (%) 189/1364 (13.9) 33/210 (15.7) 1.2 [0.8–1.7] 0.477
 Primigravida, n (%) 668 (48.8) 95 (44.8) 0.9 [0.6–1.1] 0.276
 Multiple pregnancy, n (%) 52 (3.8) 9 (4.2) 1.1 [0.5–2.3] 0.758
 Place of birth, n (%)
  SMRU 1241 (90.7) 182 (85.8) 1 0.011
  Tertiary hospital 61 (4.5) 7 (3.3) 0.8 [0.4–1.7]  
  Home 58 (4.2) 19 (9.0) 2.2 [1.3–3.8]  
  Other 8 (0.6) 4 (1.9) 3.4 [1.0–11.4]  
 Breech and face delivery, n (%) 36 (2.6) 13 (6.1) 2.4 [1.3–4.6] 0.008 2.0 [1.0–4.3] 0.056
 Instrumental vaginal delivery, n (%) 58 (4.4) 4 (1.9) 0.4 [0.2–1.2] 0.073
Newborn characteristics
 Gender (male), n (%) 796 (58.2) 126 (59.7) 1.1 [0.8–1.4] 0.731
 Small for gestational age, n (%) 251/1350 (18.6) 46/204 (15.5) 1.3 [0.9–1.8] 0.188 1.3 [0.9–2.0] 0.139
 Gestational age, n (%)
  < 32 weeks 38/1367 (2.8) 15/211 (7.1) 3.5 [1.9–6.5] < 0.001 3.3 [1.6–6.6] < 0.001
  32 < 37 weeks 352/1367 (25.7) 85/211 (40.3) 2.1 [1.6–2.9] 2.2 [1.6–3.1]
  ≥ 37 weeks 977/1367 (71.5) 111/211 (52.6) 1 1
 Congenital abnormality, n (%) 34 (2.5) 10 (4.7) 1.9 [1.0–4.0] 0.089 2.4 [1.1–5.3] 0.027
 G6PD deficiency, n (%) 213/1364 (15.6) 54 (25.5) 1.9 [1.3–2.6] < 0.001 2.3 [1.6–3.3] < 0.001
 Potential ABO incompatibility, n (%) 238/1341 (17.7) 45/205 (22.0) 1.3 [0.9–1.9] 0.155 1.5 [1.0–2.2] 0.032
 INH as sole clinical diagnosis, n (%) 814 (59.5) 97 (45.8) 1.7 [1.3–2.3] < 0.001
 Infection, n (%)
  No infection associated 955 (69.8) 123 (58.0) 1 0.003 1 0.006
  Associated severe infection 240 (17.5) 56 (26.4) 1.8 [1.3–2.6]   1.8 [1.2–2.7]  
  Associated mild infection 173 (12.6) 33 (15.6) 1.5 [0.9–2.3]   1.4 [0.9–2.2]  
 Age at presentation, n (%)
  0–24 h 154 (11.3) 37 (17.5) 2.1 [1.4–3.3] < 0.001 1.5 [0.9–2.4] 0.003
  > 24–72 h 160 (55.6) 85 (40.1) 1   1  
  > 72 h 454 (33.2) 90 (42.5) 1.8 [1.3–2.4]   1.8 [1.3–2.6]  
 Length of phototherapy in hours, median, (IQR) 36 (22–66) 72 (43–133) < 0.001  
 Mortality during hospitalization, n, (%) 14 (1.0) 17 (8.0) 8.4 [4.1–17.4] < 0.001
  1. aDenominator unless stated otherwise
  2. bVariables included in the final model were: ‘Gestational age’, ‘small for gestational age’, ‘G6PD deficiency’, ‘potential ABO incompatibility’, infection ‘and variables with a p-value < 0.25 in univariable analysis. ‘NH as sole clinical diagnosis’ (correlated to ‘Infection’) and ‘Place of birth’ (correlated to ‘Age at presentation’) were not included in the final model. Only AOR and [95%CI] of known risk factors and of those remaining significant in the final model are reported in this table