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Table 3 Maternal and newborn characteristics of moderate and severe INH and factors associated with severe INH

From: Indirect neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in hospitalized neonates on the Thai-Myanmar border: a review of neonatal medical records from 2009 to 2014

Characteristics

Moderate INH, n=1368a

Severe INH, n=212a

OR [95%CI]

p-value

AORb [95%CI]

p-value

Maternal characteristics

 Site, n (%)

  Migrant

464 (33.9)

60 (28.3)

1

0.107

  Refugee

904 (66.1)

152 (71.7)

1.3 [0.9–1.8]

 

 

 Ethnicity, n (%)

  Karen

1014/1348 (75.2)

151/198 (76.3)

1

0.434

  Burman

230/1348 (17.1)

28/198 (13.2)

0.8 [0.5–1.2]

 

  Other

104/1348 (7.7)

19/198 (9.0)

1.2 [0.7–2.1]

 

 Age in years, median, (IQR)

24 (20–30)

23 (20–31)

1.0 [0.9–1.0]

0.777

 Literacy, n (%)

846/1280 (66.1)

101/162 (62.3)

0.9 [0.6–1.2]

0.347

 Smoking, n (%)

189/1364 (13.9)

33/210 (15.7)

1.2 [0.8–1.7]

0.477

 Primigravida, n (%)

668 (48.8)

95 (44.8)

0.9 [0.6–1.1]

0.276

 Multiple pregnancy, n (%)

52 (3.8)

9 (4.2)

1.1 [0.5–2.3]

0.758

 Place of birth, n (%)

  SMRU

1241 (90.7)

182 (85.8)

1

0.011

  Tertiary hospital

61 (4.5)

7 (3.3)

0.8 [0.4–1.7]

 

  Home

58 (4.2)

19 (9.0)

2.2 [1.3–3.8]

 

  Other

8 (0.6)

4 (1.9)

3.4 [1.0–11.4]

 

 Breech and face delivery, n (%)

36 (2.6)

13 (6.1)

2.4 [1.3–4.6]

0.008

2.0 [1.0–4.3]

0.056

 Instrumental vaginal delivery, n (%)

58 (4.4)

4 (1.9)

0.4 [0.2–1.2]

0.073

Newborn characteristics

 Gender (male), n (%)

796 (58.2)

126 (59.7)

1.1 [0.8–1.4]

0.731

 Small for gestational age, n (%)

251/1350 (18.6)

46/204 (15.5)

1.3 [0.9–1.8]

0.188

1.3 [0.9–2.0]

0.139

 Gestational age, n (%)

  < 32 weeks

38/1367 (2.8)

15/211 (7.1)

3.5 [1.9–6.5]

< 0.001

3.3 [1.6–6.6]

< 0.001

  32 < 37 weeks

352/1367 (25.7)

85/211 (40.3)

2.1 [1.6–2.9]

2.2 [1.6–3.1]

  ≥ 37 weeks

977/1367 (71.5)

111/211 (52.6)

1

1

 Congenital abnormality, n (%)

34 (2.5)

10 (4.7)

1.9 [1.0–4.0]

0.089

2.4 [1.1–5.3]

0.027

 G6PD deficiency, n (%)

213/1364 (15.6)

54 (25.5)

1.9 [1.3–2.6]

< 0.001

2.3 [1.6–3.3]

< 0.001

 Potential ABO incompatibility, n (%)

238/1341 (17.7)

45/205 (22.0)

1.3 [0.9–1.9]

0.155

1.5 [1.0–2.2]

0.032

 INH as sole clinical diagnosis, n (%)

814 (59.5)

97 (45.8)

1.7 [1.3–2.3]

< 0.001

 Infection, n (%)

  No infection associated

955 (69.8)

123 (58.0)

1

0.003

1

0.006

  Associated severe infection

240 (17.5)

56 (26.4)

1.8 [1.3–2.6]

 

1.8 [1.2–2.7]

 

  Associated mild infection

173 (12.6)

33 (15.6)

1.5 [0.9–2.3]

 

1.4 [0.9–2.2]

 

 Age at presentation, n (%)

  0–24 h

154 (11.3)

37 (17.5)

2.1 [1.4–3.3]

< 0.001

1.5 [0.9–2.4]

0.003

  > 24–72 h

160 (55.6)

85 (40.1)

1

 

1

 

  > 72 h

454 (33.2)

90 (42.5)

1.8 [1.3–2.4]

 

1.8 [1.3–2.6]

 

 Length of phototherapy in hours, median, (IQR)

36 (22–66)

72 (43–133)

< 0.001

 

 Mortality during hospitalization, n, (%)

14 (1.0)

17 (8.0)

8.4 [4.1–17.4]

< 0.001

  1. aDenominator unless stated otherwise
  2. bVariables included in the final model were: ‘Gestational age’, ‘small for gestational age’, ‘G6PD deficiency’, ‘potential ABO incompatibility’, infection ‘and variables with a p-value < 0.25 in univariable analysis. ‘NH as sole clinical diagnosis’ (correlated to ‘Infection’) and ‘Place of birth’ (correlated to ‘Age at presentation’) were not included in the final model. Only AOR and [95%CI] of known risk factors and of those remaining significant in the final model are reported in this table