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Table 2 Socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics of children with elevated blood pressure in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

From: Elevated blood pressure among primary school children in Dar es salaam, Tanzania: prevalence and risk factors

  All Normal BP Elevated BP p-value
Mean ± SD N (%) Mean ± SD N (%) Mean ± SD N (%)  
Age (years) 11.1 ± 2.0 11.1 ± 2.1 12.1 ± 1.8 0.0001
Age category
  ≤ 10 years 138 (30.9) 127 (33.8) 11 (15.7) 0.0029
  > 10 years 308 (69.1) 249 (66.2) 59 (84.3)  
Gender
 Boys 209 (46.9) 174 (46.3) 35 (50.0) 0.5665
 Girls 237 (53.1) 202 (53.7) 35 (50.0)  
Body mass (kg) 34.1 ± 11.8 32.5 ± 10.7 42.8 ± 13.7 < 0.0001
Height (cm) 142.1 ± 13.3 140.6 ± 12.8 149.8 ± 13.6 < 0.0001
BMI (kg/m2) 16.6 ± 4.0 16.1 ± 3.6 18.9 ± 5.2 < 0.0001
BMI category
 Underweight 65 (14.6) 57 (15.2) 8 (11.4)  
 Normal weight 314 (70.4) 276 (73.4) 38 (54.2) < 0.0001
 Overweight 44 (9.8) 32 (8.5) 12 (17.2)  
 Obese 23 (5.2) 11 (2.9) 12 (17.2)  
Place of residence
 Rural 197 (44.2) 169 (44.9) 28 (40.0) 0.4441
 Urban 249 (55.8) 207 (55.1) 42 (60.0)  
Number of adults in family
 Less than 6 adults 187 (41.9) 157 (41.8) 30 (42.9) 0.8638
 6 and above adults 259 (58.1) 219 (58.2) 40 (57.1)  
Number of children
 Less than 3 children 201 (45.3) 163 (43.4) 38 (54.3) 0.0914
 3 and above children 245 (54.7) 223 (56.6) 22 (45.7)  
Pocket money for school
  ≤ 500 Tanzanian shillings 315 (70.5) 268 (71.3) 47 (67.1) 0.4857
  > 500 Tanzanian shillings 131 (29.5) 108 (28.7) 23 (32.9)  
  1. BMI Body Mass Index, BP Blood Pressure, DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure, SD Standard Deviation