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Table 1 Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), age 0–19 years

From: Systematic review of pediatric health outcomes associated with childhood adversity

Category Definition
Abuse Someone pushed, grabbed, slapped or threw something at child or child was hit so hard that she/he was injured or had marks
Household member swore at, insulted, humiliated, or put down child in a way that scared child or household member acted in a way that made child afraid that she/he might be physically hurt
Someone touched child’s private parts or asked child to touch that person’s private parts in a sexual way that was unwanted, against child’s will, or made child feel uncomfortable
Neglect More than once, child went without food, clothing, a place to live, or had no one to protect her/him
Child often felt unsupported, unloved, and/or unprotected
Household dysfunction Child’s parents or guardians were separated or divorced
Child saw or heard household members hurt or threaten to hurt each other
Household member was depressed, mentally ill, or attempted suicide
Household member had a problem with drinking or using drugs
Household member served time in jail or prison
Other adversities Child was separated from primary caregiver through deportation or immigration
Child had a serious medical procedure or life threatening illness
Child experienced harassment or bullying at school
Child experienced verbal or physical abuse or threats from a romantic partner (i.e. boyfriend or girlfriend)
Child often saw or heard violence in the neighborhood or school
Child was detained, arrested, or incarcerated
Child was often treated badly because of race, sexual orientation, place of birth, disability, or religion
Child lived with a parent or guardian who died
Child was in foster care
  1. The categories and definitions were derived from Center for Youth Wellness ACE Questionnaire [22], which was adapted from the original ACE Study [9]