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Table 2 Overview of relevant characteristics and results of the included studies that involved child participants

From: Comparison of accelerometer measured levels of physical activity and sedentary time between obese and non-obese children and adolescents: a systematic review

Referencea Place &time Study design Sample group Comparison group Measurement Accelerometer cut off points Findings Meet 60 min/day of MVPA (%) and Author Conclusions
Chung et al. [36] United States, 2012 Data of NHANES 2003–04 and 2005–06) surveys n: 95 (47 boys, 48 girls) obese participants with BMI ≥95th to 99th centile n: 514 (253 boys, 261 girls) participants with BMI ≥ 5th to 85th centile Actigraph 7164 worn on the right hip for 7 consecutive days during waking hours Epoch = 1 min Obese group spent mean of (boys 118 (SD 6) and girls 83 (SD 10) min/day) on MVPA 97, 70% of obese boys and girls respectively achieved an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: range 6–8 years Age: range 6–8 years MVPA using Freedson cut-point (61) Comparison group spent mean of (boys 129 (SD 4) and girls 104 (SD 4) min/day) on MVPA 98, 90% of the comparison boys and girls respectively achieved an average of 60 min/day MVPA.
MVPA was significantly lower in obese than comparison group (p < 0.05)
Hughes et al. [39] United Kingdom, 2006 Pairwise comparison study. n: 53 (25 boys, 28 girls) obese participants with BMI ≥ 98th centile n: 53 (25boys, 28 girls) participants with BMI < 85th centile. CSA/MTI, 7164 worn on right hip for 7 consecutive days. Epoch = 1 min Obese group spent median of 16 (range 2–72) min/day on MVPA. Obese participants failed to achieve an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
“Clinical sample” Age: mean 8.7 (SD 2.1) years MVPA > 3200 cpm Comparison group spent median of 23 (range 7–77) min/day on MVPA. MVPA was significantly lower in obese than comparison group (p < 0.001)
Age: mean 8.6 (SD 2) years Sedentary time < 1100 cpm Obese group spent mean of 81 (SD 7) % of their waking time sedentary. Sedentary time was similar in obese and comparison group
Comparison group spent mean of 79 (SD 6) % of their waking time sedentary.  
Hussey et al. [32] Dublin, 2007 Cross sectional study n: 7/152 (3 boys, 4 girls) obese participants; with BMI > 97th centile. n: 121/152 (43 boys, 78 girls) participants with BMI > 75th to 91th centile. RT3Triaxial accelerometer, worn for 4 days. Epoch = 1 min Obese participants spent mean of (boys 14 (95%, CI- 11, 17) and girls 29 (95%, CI- 14, 43) min/day) on MVPA Obese participants failed to achieve an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: range 7 to 10 years. Age: range 7 to 10 years. MVPA> 3500 cpm Comparison group spent mean of (boys 39 (95%, CI-33, 45) and girls 24 (95%, CI- 22, 27) min/day) on MVPA MVPA was significantly lower in obese boys than comparison group (p < 0.05)
Sedentary time cut-points not clearly reported Obese participants spent mean of (boys 1046 (95%, CI- 934, 1157) and girls 935 (95%, CI- 795, 1075) min/day) sedentary Sedentary time was significantly higher in obese boys than comparison group (p < 0.05)
   Comparison group spent mean of (boys 928 (95%, CI-901, 955) and girls 963 (95%, CI- 941,985) min/day) sedentary  
Maggio et al. [64] Switzerland, 2010 Cross-sectional study n: 45/209 obese participants with BMI > 97th centile n: 85 participants with BMI <90th centile Actigraph 6471, worn on right hip for 7 consecutive days Epoch not clearly reported Obese group spent mean of 60 (SD 3) min/day on MVPA 52% of the obese participants achieved an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
“Clinical sample”   MVPA > 2000 cpm Comparison group spent mean of 71 (SD 5) min/day on MVPA 60% of the comparison group achieved an average of 60 min/day MVPA
Age: mean 9.1 (SD 0.3) years Age: mean 10 (SD 0.3) years Sedentary time < 500 cpm Obese participants spent mean of 71% of their waking time sedentary MVPA was lower in obese than comparison group but not significantly (p = 0.07)
Comparison group spent mean of 70% of their waking time sedentary Sedentary time was significantly higher in obese than comparison group (p < 0.01)
Metallinos-Katsaras et al. [38] United States, 2007 Cross sectional study n: 21 obese children with BMI ≥ 95th centile n: 35 children; BMI < 95th centile CSA 7164, worn on the hip for 7 consecutive days Epoch = 1 min Obese group spent mean of 269 (SD not given) min/day on MVPA Obese participants exceeded an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: range 2 to 5 years Age: range 2 to 5 years MVPA cut-points not clearly reported Comparison group spent mean of 277 (SD not given) min/day on MVPA MVPA was lower in obese than comparison group but this was not significant (p > 0.05)
Thompson et al. [37] Canada, 2005 Cross sectional study n: 112 (56 boys, 56 girls) obese participants with BMI ≥ 95th centile n: 341 (177 boys, 164 girls) participants with BMI ≤ 85th centile Actigraph 7164, worn on the hip for 7 consecutive days Epoch = 1 min Obese group spent mean of (boys 172 (SD 58) and girls 157 (SD 52) min/day) on MVPA Obese participants exceeded an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: mean 8 (SD 0.3) years Age: 3, 7 and 11 years old MVPA used Freedson cut-point (61) Comparison group spent mean of (boys 179 (SD 63) and girls 165 (SD 51) min/day) on MVPA Comparison group exceeded an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
MVPA was similar in obese and comparison group
Vale et al. [41] Portugal, 2013 Cross sectional study n: 59/607 obese children with BMI defined according to the IOTF criteria n: 425/607 children with BMI defined as non-overweight, non-obese according to the IOTF criteria ActiGraph GT1M, worn on the hip for 7 consecutive days Epoch = 5 s Absolute MVPA not clearly given MVPA was significantly lower in obese girls than comparison group (p < 0.01), but not in boys
Age: mean 5.1 (SD 0.8) years Age: range 4–6 years MVPA ≥1680 cpm
Wafa et al. [35]. Malaysia, 2014 Case control study. n: 86 obese participants with BMI ≥ 95th centile n: 86 participants with BMI < 85th centile matched for age and gender ActiGraph GT1M, worn for 5 consecutive days Epoch not reported Obese group spent median 5 (IQR – 0, 32) min/day on MVPA Obese participants failed to achieve an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: median 9.5 (IQR 8,11) years MVA > 3200 cpm Comparison group spent of median 9 (IQR – 0, 55) min/day on MVPA Comparison group failed to achieve an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Sedentary time < 1100 cpm Obese group spent an average of 90% of their waking time sedentary MVPA was significantly lower in the obese than in the comparison group (p < 0.001)
Comparison group spent an average of 88% of their waking time sedentary Sedentary time was significantly higher in the obese group than in the comparison group (p < 0.001)
  1. BMI: body mass index; cpm: counts per minutes; IOTF: International Obesity Task Force criteria; MVPA: moderate- vigorous physical activity; n: Number; S: Second, Data are expressed as mean, (SD) unless otherwise. Freedson MVPA cutpoint (61) using the following equation: METS = 2.757 + (0.0015 x counts/min) – (0.08957 x age (yr)) – (0.000038 x counts/min x age (yr)).a Studies are listed in alphabetic order