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Table 1 Categorization of risk indicators, non-social and social cues in child abuse pediatrician notes (n = 730)

From: Perceived social risk in medical decision-making for physical child abuse: a mixed-methods study

Population based risk indicators
Child risks Low birth weight or premature
Disabled or behavioral disorder
Family risks Single mother
Re-ordered family
Intimate partner violence
Parental Young maternal age
Substance abuse
Psychiatric illness
Low educational achievement
Social Unemployment
Poverty
Social isolation
Non-Social Cues
Negative Immunizations not up to date
Gas or colic drops (crying is associated with abusive head trauma)
Unplanned pregnancy
Do not follow parenting guidelines (e.g.car seats)
Late/inconsistent prenatal care
Missing well child care visits
No primary care provider
Positive Primary care provider noted
Employment for either caregiver
Immunizations are up to date
Follows parenting guidelines (e.g. uses car seats)
Well child care visits attended
Consistent, early prenatal care
Social Cues
Negative Negative description of male caregiver
Negative description of female caregiver
Prior CPS involvement in the family
Risk family situation. Household described as chaotic, dangerous, or dysfunctional.
Caregiver with criminal justice history (arrest, probation, parole, incarceration)
Changing history/ blame shifting
Caregiver delayed care for current injuries
Incompetent caregiving
Caregiver inferred mental health problems
Caregiver’s own abuse experience
Prior trauma history for patient
Inferred substance abuse
Intimate partner violence (prior family)
Caregiver negative description of child
Positive Sought appropriate care for current injury
Caregivers positive description of child
Social support available
Competent parenting
Positive description of male caregiver
Sought non-emergent care in the past
Positive description of female caregiver
Caregivers are professionals
Positive description of family
Provide thoughtful child care