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Table 2 EUS procedures by indications and findings

From: The role of endoscopic ultrasound in children with Pancreatobiliary and gastrointestinal disorders: a single center series and review of the literature

Case Age (y) / Sex Indication Comorbidities Imagery/Diagnostic Studies Prior EUS Sedation EUS Findings Treatment Impact
1 18 F Suspected CBDs Nil US, CT DP Gallstones and CBDs Stones extracted at ERCP; laparoscopic cholecystectomy 2
2 12 F Suspected acute biliary pancreatitis Psoriasis US, CT DP Normal Precluded need for ERCP 1
3 18 M Suspected CBDs Ulcerative colitis, sclerosing cholangitis US, MRI DP Normal Precluded need for ERCP 1
4 12 F Suspected CBDs Nil US DP Gallstones Precluded need for ERCP; laparoscopic cholecystectomy 1
5 7 M Recurrent pancreatitis Klinefelter syndrome US, MRI GA Chronic pancreatitis Nil 1
5b   Recurrent pancreatitis
(1 year later)
Nil CT GA Chronic pancreatitis Nil 0
6 14 M Acute biliary pancreatitis Nil US, CT DP Gallstones, edematous pancreatitis Precluded need for ERCP;
laparoscopic cholecystectomy
1
7 15 M Suspected CBDs Nil US DP Gallstones Precluded need for ERCP;
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
1
8 18 M Recurrent hypoglycemia Nil CT, MRI DP Solid hypoechogenic hypervascular lesion of pancreatic tail FNA with 25 G,
diagnosis of insulinomas;
surgical resection
2
9 18 M Suspected anal Crohn’s disease Rectal Crohn’s disease Colonoscopy, MRI NS Normal Nil 0
10 18 M Suspected CBDs Nil US DP Gallstones Precluded need for ERCP;
laparoscopic cholecystectomy
1
11 18 M Suspected anal Crohn’s disease Rectal Crohn’s disease Colonoscopy, CT NS Trans-sphincteric fistula Biologic therapy 2
11b   Control after 6 months of therapy Nil EUS NS Partial remission Biologic therapy 2
11c   Control after 1 year of therapy Nil EUS NS Remission Stop of biologic therapy 2
12 18 F Suspected CBDs Nil US, MRI DP Gallstones Precluded need for ERCP;
laparoscopic cholecystectomy
1
13 16 M Suspected Crohn’s disease Rectal Crohn’s disease Colonoscopy, CT NS Normal Nil 0
14 13 F Recurrent pancreatitis Celiac disease US, CT DP Chronic pancreatitis Nil 1
15 9 M Suspected acute biliary pancreatitis Nil US, CT DP Gallstones edematous pancreatitis Precluded need for ERCP;
laparoscopic cholecystectomy
1
16 16 F Cystic pancreatic mass Takayasu arteritis Hashimoto thyroiditis US GA Voluminous head pancreatic cysts FNA with 22 G
(serous cystadenoma)
1
16b   Acute pancreatitis Nil CT GA Compression of CBD and Wirsung duct Whipple resection 2
17 12 M Fecal incontinence Surgery for Hirschsprung disease MRI NS Interruption of internal anal sphincter Symptomatic management 1
18 18 F Suspected anal Crohn’s disease Ileo-colonic Crohn’s disease Colonoscopy, CT NS Normal Nil 0
19 12 M Suspected anal Crohn’s disease Colonic Crohn’s disease Colonoscopy NS Extra sphincteric fistula Biologic therapy 2
19b   Control after 6 months of therapy Nil EUS NS Remission Biologic therapy 2
20 9 F Duodenal polyp Nil EGD, MRI,
PET with Ga-DOTATOC
GA Hypoechoic, hypervascular lesion originate in the III layer, infiltrate the IV Surgical resection
(NET G2)
2
20b   Follow up after surgery Nil MRI, CT,
PET with Ga-DOTATOC
GA Normal Nil 0
21 13 F Suspected acute biliary pancreatitis Nil US, MRI DP Gallstones,
acute necrotizing pancreatitis
Precluded need for ERCP;
laparoscopic cholecystectomy
1
21b   Abdominal pain Nil CT GA Pancreatic pseudocyst Transgastric drainage with metallic stent 2
22 12 F Fecal incontinence Surgery for Hirschsprung disease MRI NS Interruption of internal anal sphincter Symptomatic management 1
23 15 M Suspected CBDs Ulcerative colitis sclerosing cholangitis US, MRI DP Normal Precluded need for ERCP 1
24 17 F Suspected anal Crohn’s disease Colonic Crohn’s disease Colonoscopy, MRI NS Abscess with extra sphincteric fistula Surgical intervention 2
25 18 M Suspected CBDs Ulcerative Colitis sclerosing cholangitis US, MRI DP Normal Precluded need for ERCP 1
26 17 M Suspected CBDs Nil US DP Gallstones Precluded need for ERCP;
laparoscopic cholecystectomy
1
27 18 M Suspected Crohn’s anal disease Ileo-colonic Crohn’s disease Colonoscopy, CT NS Abscess with extra sphincteric fistula Surgical intervention 2
28 12 M Recurrent pancreatitis Nil MRI DP Chronic pancreatitis Nil 1
29 17 M Suspected acute biliary pancreatitis Nil US, CT DP Gallstones, edematous pancreatitis Precluded need for ERCP;
laparoscopic cholecystectomy
1
30 18 M Suspected Crohn’s anal disease Nil Colonoscopy, MRI NS Abscess with extra sphincteric fistula Surgical intervention 2
31 14 F Gastric subepithelial lesions Nil EGD DP Lipoma Nil 1
32 9 F Suspected acute biliary pancreatitis Nil US, MRI GA Normal Precluded need for ERCP 1
33 4 F Cystic pancreatic mass on US Nil MRI GA Pancreatic pseudocyst Surgery in urgency for traumatic rupture 1
34 18 F Suspected CBDs Nil US DP Gallstones Precluded need for ERCP;
laparoscopic cholecystectomy
1
35 18 F Perigastric abscess at US PEG, holoprosencephaly EGD, US GA Perigastric abscess Surgical drainage 0
36 18 M Recurrent hypoglycemia Nil MRI DP Solid hypoechogenic hypervascular lesion of uncinate process FNA with 25 G
(diagnosis of insulinomas);
Medical therapy
2
37 18 F Suspected acute biliary pancreatitis Nil US, CT DP Gallstones, edematous pancreatitis Precluded need for ERCP;
laparoscopic cholecystectomy
1
38 16 M Suspected CBDs Nil US DP Gallstones and CBDs Stones extracted at ERCP 2
39 3 F Encopresis Sacrococcygeal Yolk Sac Tumor MRI DP Pararectal lesion Surgical intervention
(recurrent disease)
2
40 13 M Suspected Crohn’s anal disease Ilelonic Crohn’s disease Colonoscopy, MRI NS Perianal abscess Surgical intervention 2
  1. CBD indicates common bile duct; CBDs indicates common bile duct stones; CT indicates computerized tomography; DP indicates deep sedation; EGD indicates Esophagogastroduodenoscopy; ERCP indicates endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; EUS indicates endoscopic ultrasound; F indicates female; FNA indicates fine needle aspiration; GA indicates general anesthesia; M indicates male; MRI indicates magnetic resonance imaging; NET indicates neuroendocrine tumor; NS indicates non sedation; PEG indicates percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; PET with Ga-DOTATOC indicates Gallium-68-somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography; US indicates ultrasound