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Table 3 Prevalence of severe (≥ −2SD) and moderate (≥ −1SD) fine motor impairment in children with no PAE; PAE (no FASD); and FASD

From: Fine motor skills in a population of children in remote Australia with high levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

  Total Cohort
n = 108a
No PAE
n = 43
PAE (no FASD)
n = 39
FASD
n = 21
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Fine Motor Composite
 - ≥ 2SD 1 (0.9) 0 (0) 0 (0 1 (4.8)
 - ≥ 1SD 16 (14.8) 5 (11.6) 3 (7.7) 6 (28.6)
Fine Manual Control  
 -≥ 2SD 1 (0.9) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (4.8)
 -≥ 1SD 42 (38.9)* 16 (37.2)* 14 (35.9)* 10 (47.6)**
Fine Motor Precision
 - ≥ 2SD 1 (0.9) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (4.8)
 - ≥ 1SD 33 (30.6) 12 (27.9) 11 (28.2) 9 (42.9)*
Fine Motor Integration
 - ≥ 2SD 1 (0.9) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (4.8)
 - ≥ 1SD 48 (44.4)* 17 (39.5)* 15 (38.5)* 13 (61.9)**
Manual Coordination
 - ≥ 2SD 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 - ≥ 1SD 2 (1.9) 1 (2.3) 0 (0) 1 (4.8)
Manual Dexterity
 - ≥ 2SD 1 (0.9) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (4.8)
 - ≥ 1SD 11 (10.2) 5 (11.6) 0 (0) 5 (23.8)
Upper-Limb Coordination
 - ≥ 2SD 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 - ≥ 1SD 5 (4.6) 2 (4.7) 2 (5.1) 1 (4.8)
  1. - ≥ 2SD = ≤ 2nd percentile; − ≥ 1SD = ≤ 16th percentile
  2. * = at least twice, and ** = at least three times, the rate of BOT-2 norms
  3. a ‘Total Cohort’ includes n = 5 children with unknown PAE who are not included in the No PAE, PAE (no FASD), or FASD group