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Table 3 Background characteristics of participants

From: Validity of a family-centered approach for assessing infants’ social-emotional wellbeing and their developmental context: a prospective cohort study

  Cases
(N = 87)
Controls
(N = 172)
Total cohortb
(N = 2835)
P-value
cases-controlsϕ/cases-total cohort
Gender
 Male 46 (52.9%) 90 (52.3%) 1420 (50.1%)  
 Female 41 (47.1%) 82 (47.7%) 1414 (49.9%) .61
Highest educational level of either parents
 Lower 4 (4.8%) 4 (2.4%) 119 (4.7%) .06
 Secondary 44 (57.9%) 77 (45.6%) 1099 (43.0%) .03
 Higher 28 (36.8%) 88 (52.1%) 1336 (52.3%)  
Parental age
 Mother
  Younger than 20 2 (2.3%) 1 (0.6%) 15 (0.6%) .04a
  20–40 81 (93.1%) 169 (98.8%) 2351 (96.6%) .05a
  40 years and over 4 (4.6%) 1 (0.6%) 59 (2.4%)  
 Father
  Younger than 20 1 (1.2%) 1 (0.6%) 5 (0.2%) .73a
  20–40 70 (81.4%) 141 (84.9%) 2092 (89.6%) .03
  40 years and over 15 (17.4%) 24 (14.5%) 239 (10.2%)  
Employment status parent
 One of both or both parents have 85 (97.7%) 167 (97.7%) 1206 (94.4%) 1.00a
paid work     .23a
 None of both parents has paid 2 (2.3%) 4 (2.3%) 72 (5.6%)  
 Work
Country of birth parent
 One or both born in the Netherlands 86 (98.9%) 169 (100.0%) 2460 (99.3%) .34a
 Both born outside the Netherlands 1 (1.1%) 0 (0.0%) 86 (0.7%) .48a
Family composition
 Two parents household 78 (91.1%) 171 (99.4%) 2046 (96.9%) .01a
 One parent household 7 (8.2%) 1 (0.6%) 65 (3.1%) .05a
Number of children
 First child 37 (43.4%) 81 (47.1%) 1215 (42.9%) .59
 More children 48 (56.5%) 91 (52.9%) 1620 (55.3%) 1.00
  1. abased on Fisher’s exact test
  2. bparticipants for whom data was available, cases excluded
  3. ϕfor gender the p-value was not given for the comparison between cases and controls because of the matching by gender