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Table 2 The scores of measures (n = 255)

From: Paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment: the mediation role of maternal parenting stress

Variables (Reference range) Mean (SD) scores
Korean Parenting Alliance Inventory (K-PAI)a
 Caretaking activity (10–40) 32.1 (5.0)
 Shared philosophy and perceptions of parenting (2–8) 6.8 (1.2)
 Emotional appraisal of spouse’s parenting (5–20) 16.6 (2.3)
 Total scores (17–68) 55.5 (7.4)
Parenting Stress Index (PSI)b
 Parental distress (10–40) 14.0 (3.8)
 Difficult child (7–28) 13.4 (3.1)
 Parent–child dysfunctional interaction (8–32) 18.5 (3.0)
 Total scores (25–100) 45.8 (7.3)
Korean-Ages and Stages Questionnaire II (K-ASQ II)c
 Communication (0–60) 51.6 (8.6)
 Gross motor (0–60) 49.5 (11.0)
 Fine motor (0–60) 44.0 (11.3)
 Problem-solving (0–60) 49.0 (10.0)
 Personal/social (0–60) 49.1 (10.2)
 Total scores (0–300) 243.2 (37.4)
  1. Values are expressed as mean (± standard deviation). The higher scores mean the better level of paternal involvementa, more maternal stressb, and better neurodevelopment of infantsc