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Table 6 Single studies on spontaneous closure of ventricular septal defect

From: Prediction of spontaneous closure of isolated ventricular septal defects in utero and postnatal life

First Author Place(Years) Number Starting point Follow up Classification Classification of VSD Spontaneous closure No.(%) Influencing Factor
Moe [6] Washington, USA (1987) 222 after birth 12 m VSD perimembranous 66 (65%), muscular 32 (32%), subpulmonic 3 (3%). 101 (48%) location
Hornberger [7] California,USA (1989) 66 6 m 40 m VSD with CHF perimembranous 45, muscular 19, supracristal 2 12 (18%) size
Trowitzsch [8] Datteln, Germany (1990) 169 <4 w 29 m   perimembraneous 35 (20.1%), muscular125 (71.8%), malalignment 12 (6.9%), subpulmonary 2 (1.1%) 70 (42.6%) location
    4w ~ 1y    perimembraneous 32 (33.6%), muscular 57 (60%), malalignment 6 (6.3%)   
Frontera [9] Valencia,Spain (1992) 882 >1y 9.5y   according toQp/Qs 275 (40.2%) Qp/Qs
Ramaciotti [10], Pennsylvania,USA (1995) 125 2.4 m 32 m Muscular VSD midmuscular 55 (44%), apical 31 (25%), anterior 33 (26%), and posterior 6 (5%) 30 (31%)  
Roguin [11], Nahariya, Israel (1995) 56 6–170 h 10 m Muscular VSD   40 (88.9%) a delayed normal process
Du [12], Nahariya, Israel (1996) 9/159 2–120 h 10 m Muscular VSD preterm neonate   8 (87.5%)  
Shirali [13], Texas,USA (1995) 149 <6 m 28 m   periembranous 100 (68.9%) muscular 49 (33.7%) canal-type 5 (3.4%) conal-septal 2 (1.8%) 46 (31%) size and location
Krovetz [14] Florida,USA (1997) 692 7 h–23y 3 ~ 18y    490 (70.8%)  
Turner [15] Newcastle,UK (1999) 68 2d–42 m 76 m   small 49, moderate 14, large 5. 35.0% location
Paladini [16] Naples,Italy (2000) 68 24.8w 1y Isolated VSD Perimembranous inlet 22 (32.4%),outlet 19 (27.9%); muscular 7 (10.3%), malalignment 16 (23.5%) In utero: 46.1%, postnatal : 23.1% not close: 30% size and location
Gabriel [17], Vienna, Austria (2002) 222 20.8y 7.4y   perimembranous 194 (84.8%), trabecular 30 (13.1%), outlet infracristal 4 (1.7%), inlet 1 (0.4%). 14 (6%) Qp/Qs
Miyake [18] Osakasayama, Japan (2004) 225 30d ~ 3 m 6y   perimembranous159 (70%) muscular 35 (16%) subpulmonary 31 (14%), 107 (48%) location
Atalay [19] Ankara, Turkey (2005) 42 <6 m 2 ~ 10y Small Apical Muscular VSD   24 (57.1%) neonatal period
Fliedner [20] Bonn, Germany (2006) 146 23.4w 1y Isolated VSD perimembranous 15 (10.3%) muscular 131 (89.7%): trabecular 116 (79.5%), outlet 12 (8.2%), inlet 3 (2%). in utero: 32.7%, postnatal: 44.3% not close: 23.0% location
Abbag [39] Saudi Arabia (2006) 86 14 m 66.3 m   perimembranous 67.4%, muscular 19.8%, inlet 7% subarterial 5.8%. 16.30% age, size
Atik [21] São Paulo Brazil (2008) 155 8d 1–18Y Small VSD perimembranous 68 (36.3%) muscular 119 (63.6%) 48 (75%) location
Miyake [22], Osaka, Japan (2008) 48 2y 17.8y Perimembranous VSD according to Qp/Qs 11 (23%) Qp/Qs
Chang [23] Kaohsiung, Taiwan (2010) 66   1y MuscularVSD midmuscular 37, apical 24, anterior 5 54 (81.8%)  
Jin [24] Shandong, China (2012) 96 24 ~ 40w 3y   Perimembranous 14,
Muscular 52
in utero: 3%, postnatal: 83.3% not close: 3.9% size and location
Sun [25] Shanghai, China (2014) 1873 1 ~ 6y 23.8 m Perimembranous VSD   343 (18.3%) Age diamete, Diffuse shunt flow, aneurysmal tissue
Erol [26] Istanbul, Turkey (2014) 76 23.1w 1y Muscular VSD   in utero: 6.8%, postnatal: 75%, not close: 18.2% size
Xu [27] Changchun, China (2015) 425 1d ~ 6 m 5y   Perimembranous313 (73.65%) muscular 53 (12.47%) subarterial 39 (9.18%) mixed-type 20 (4.70%). 93 (21.8%) size, location, Qp/Qs, membranous septal aneurysm
  1. Congestive heart failure CHF