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Table 1 Characteristics of healthy kindergarten children (n = 1,088) and carriage of pathogenic bacteria

From: Nasal carriage of common bacterial pathogens among healthy kindergarten children in Chaoshan region, southern China: a cross-sectional study

Independent Variable Total (n = 1,088) n (%)a Bacterial carriage n (%)b OR (95 % CI)c Bacteria carriers (n = 866) n (%)b OR (95 % CI)d
No (n = 222) Yes (n = 866) Single spp. (n = 568) Multiple spp. (n = 298)
Gender
 Male 593 (54.5) 122 (20.6) 471 (79.4) Reference 312 (66.2) 159 (33.8) Reference
 Female 495 (45.5) 100 (20.2) 395 (79.8) 1.0 (0.8–1.4) 256 (64.8) 139 (35.2) 1.1 (0.8–1.4)
Age (years)
 2 ~ < 3 218 (20.0) 31 (14.2) 187 (85.8) Reference 106 (56.7) 81 (43.3) Reference
 3 ~ < 4 352 (32.4) 61 (17.3) 291 (82.7) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 181 (62.2) 110 (37.8) 0.8 (0.5–1.2)
 4 ~ < 5 331 (30.4) 65 (19.6) 266 (80.4) 0.7 (0.4–1.1) 179 (67.3) 87 (32.7) 0.6 (0.4–0.9)*
 5 ~ 6 187 (17.2) 65 (34.8) 122 (65.2) 0.3 (0.2–0.5)* 102 (83.6) 20 (16.4) 0.3 (0.1–0.4)*
Episode of respiratory symptoms in the past 6 months
 0 308 (28.3) 59 (19.2) 249 (80.8) Reference 155 (62.2) 94 (37.8) Reference
 1 ~ 2 679 (62.4) 148 (21.8) 531 (78.2) 0.9 (0.6–1.2) 350 (65.9) 181 (34.1) 0.9 (0.6–1.2)
  ≥ 3 101 (9.3) 15 (14.9) 86 (85.1) 1.4 (0.7–2.5) 63 (73.3) 23 (26.7) 0.6 (0.4–1.0)
Antibiotic consumption within previous 3 months (n = 875, 213 missing data)
 No 524 (59.9) 101 (19.3) 423 (80.7) Reference 279 (66.0) 144 (34.0) Reference
 Yes 351 (40.1) 85 (24.2) 266 (75.8) 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 179 (67.3) 87 (32.7) 0.9 (0.7–1.3)
Mother’s education level (n = 1,059, 29 missing data)
 Elementary school 225 (21.2) 45 (20.0) 180 (80.0) Reference 100 (55.6) 80 (44.4) Reference
 Middle/high school 592 (55.9) 111 (18.8) 481 (81.3) 1.1 (0.7–1.6) 312 (64.9) 169 (35.1) 0.7 (0.5–1.0)*
 College/university 242 (22.9) 56 (23.1) 186 (76.9) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 143 (76.9) 43 (23.1) 0.4 (0.2–0.6)*
Father’s education level (n = 1,063, 25 missing data)
 Elementary school 186 (17.5) 36 (19.4) 150 (80.6) Reference 83 (55.3) 67 (44.7) Reference
 Middle/high school 584 (54.9) 106 (18.2) 478 (81.8) 1.1 (0.7–1.6) 298 (62.3) 180 (37.7) 0.7 (0.5–1.1)
 College/university 293 (27.6) 70 (23.9) 223 (76.1) 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 176 (78.9) 47 (21.1) 0.3 (0.2–0.5)*
Location of kindergarten (city)
 Shantou 699 (64.2) 162 (23.2) 537 (76.8) Reference 348 (64.8) 189 (35.2) Reference
 Jieyang 196 (18.0) 39 (19.9) 157 (80.1) 1.2 (0.8–1.8) 106 (67.5) 51 (32.5) 0.9 (0.6–1.3)
 Chaozhou 193 (17.7) 21 (10.9) 172 (89.1) 2.5 (1.5–4.0)* 114 (66.3) 58 (33.7) 0.9 (0.7–1.3)
  1. a% of total
  2. b% of each independent variable
  3. cBetween-group comparison regarding the overall bacterial carriage by Chi-square test
  4. dBetween-group comparison regarding multiple bacterial carriage by Chi-square test
  5. * p < 0.05
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