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Table 3 Distribution of the sociodemographic factors and bivariate analysis for the risk of acquiring pneumonia

From: Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in children under five years of age in the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era in Brazil: a case control study

Variable   Cases (n = 407)
N (%)
Controls (n = 407)
N (%)
p-value OR 95 % CI
Family income* >1MS 156 (43.6) 201 (51.7)   1  
(minimum wage [MW]) ≤1MS 202 (564) 188 (48.3) 0.03 1.38 1.04–1.84
Household crowding No 287 (721) 320 (86.5)   1  
Yes 111 (27.9) 50 (13.5) <0.01 2.47 1.70–3.58
Maternal age ≥19 years 369 (91.3) 389 (95.6)   1  
<19 years 35 (8.7) 18 (4.4) 0.02 2.05 1.14–3.68
Maternal education(years of schooling) ≥11 years 151 (38.3) 196 (48.6)   1  
<11 years 243 (61.7) 207 (51.4) <0.01 1.52 1.15–2.02
Smoking in the home No 285 (70.4) 321 (78.9)   1  
Yes 120 (29.6) 86 (21.1) <0.01 1.57 1.14–2.16
Maternal smoking No 374 (91.9) 391 (96.1)   1  
Yes 33 (8.1) 16 (3.9) 0.01 2.16 1.67–3.98
  1. *Data missing in 67 cases (8.2 %); Data missing in 46 cases (5.6 %); Data missing in 3cases (0.4 %); Data missing in 19 cases (2.3 %)
  2. Family income*(minimum wage MW]) - The minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers may legally pay to workers per month. During the period corresponding to the data collection the range was U$ 210.00 to 230.00
  3. Household crowding† (≥2 individuals sleeping in the same room as the child