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Table 5 Celiac disease risk in relation to maternal infections during early life in all children

From: Maternal and perinatal conditions and the risk of developing celiac disease during childhood

  Descriptive     
Exposures CD Cases Not CD cases Bivariate analyses Multivariable analyses
  N (%) N (%) OR (95 % CI) P-value OR (95 % CI) P-value
Urinary tract infections       
 No 5 700 (86) 1 667 663 (88) 1.0   1.0  
 Yes 896 (14) 237 935 (13) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.007 1.2 (1.1–1.2)a <0.001
Other maternal infections       
 No 6 561 (99) 1 893 642 (99) 1.0   1.0  
 Yes 35 (0.5) 11 956 (0.6) 0.8 (0.6–1.2) 0.32 0.9 (0.7–1.4)a 0.80
urinary tract infections, <35years, Low income       
 Yes 689 (63) 136 479 (48) 1.0   1.0  
 No 343 (37) 150 895 (53) 0.5 (0.5–0.6) <0.001 0.5 (0.4–0.6)b <0.001
  1. aAdjusted for maternal age, disposable income, body mass index, parity, and duration of pregnancy, infant birth weight, sex, and Apgar score and urinary tract infections
  2. bAdjusted for body mass index, parity, pregnancy duration, and premature rupture of the membrane, infant birth weight, sex, Apgar score and other maternal infections