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Table 3 Celiac disease risk in relation to each specific maternal and perinatal condition for all children and divided for boys and girls, respectively (Results from the bivariate analysis)

From: Maternal and perinatal conditions and the risk of developing celiac disease during childhood

Maternal and perinatal exposures All children Boys Girls
OR (95 % CI) P-value OR (95 % CI) P-value OR (9 5% CI) P-value
Maternal age (years) <25 1.0   1.0   1.0  
25–29 1.1 (1.1–1.2) 0.01 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 0.06 1.1 (1.1–1.2) 0.005
30–34 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.4 0.9 (0.9–1.1) 0.68 1.9 (1.9–1.1) 0.4
≥35 0.7 (0.7–0.8) <0.001 0.7 (0.6–0.9) <0.001 0.8 (0.7–0.8) <0.001
Disposable income
(per 100 SEK)
Low 1.0   1.0   1.0  
Middle 1.2 (1.1–1.2) <0.001 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 0.07 1.2 (1.1–1.2) <0.001
High 0.8 (0.8–0.9) <0.001 0.8 (0.7–0.9) <0.001 0.8 (0.8–0.9) <0.001
Smoking during pregnancy No 1.0   1.0   1.0  
Yes 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.59 0.9 (0.9–1.1) 0.57 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 0.25
Body mass index (kg/m2) 18.50–24.99 1.0   1.0   1.0  
<18.50 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 0.87 0.9 (0.8–1.3) 0.95 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 0.86
25.00–29.99 0.9 (0.9–0.9) 0.03 0.9 (0.8–0.9) 0.03 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.27
≥30 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 0.06 0.9 (0.7–1.0) 0.05 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.40
Parity (n) 1 1.0   1.0   1.0  
2 1.1 (1.1–1.2) <0.001 1.1 (1.1–1.2) 0.01 1.2 (1.1–1.2) <0.001
≥3 0.9 (0.9–0.9) 0.03 0.9 (0.9–1.1) 0.51 0.9 (0.8–0.9) 0.02
Duration of pregnancy (weeks) 37–45 1.0   1.0   1.0  
<37 0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.001 0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.04 0.9 (0.7–0.9) 0.02
Premature rupture of the membrane No 1.00   1.0   1.00  
Yes 0.6 (0.5–0.9) 0.002 0.4 (0.2–0.7) 0.001 0.8 (0.6–1.2) 0.28
Mode of delivery Vaginal 1.0   1.0   1.0  
Caesarean 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.09 0.9 (0.9–1.1) 0.49 0.9 (0.9–1.1) 0.25
Caesarean delivery Vaginal 1.0   1.0   1.0  
Elective 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 0.14 0.8 (0.7–1.0) 0.03 0.9 (0.9–1.1) 0.73
Emergency 0.9 (0.9–1.1) 0.43 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 0.29 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.23
Infant birth weight (grams) ≥2500 1.0   1.0   1.0  
1500–2499 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 0.16 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 0.38 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 0.15
<1500 0.6 (0.4–0.9) 0.01 0.4 (0.2–0.8) 0.01 0.7 (0.5–1.1) 0.15
Sex Male 1.0      
Female 1.8 (1.8–1.9) <0.001     
Small for gestational age No 1.0   1.0   1.0  
Yes 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.46 0.9 (0.7–1.3) 0.69 0.9 (0.8–1.2) 0.49
Apgar score at 5 min ≥7 1.0   1.0   1.0  
<7 0.6 (0.4–0.8) <0.001 0.8 (0.5–1.1) 0.18 0.5 (0.3–0.8) 0.001
Maternal infectionsa No 1.0   1.0   1.0  
Yes 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.01 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 0.67 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.005
Neonatal infections No 1.0   1.0   1.0  
Yes 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 0.43 1.2 (0.9–1.7) 0.24 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 0.50
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, SEK Swedish Krona: Bivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for all variables, and results reported regardless of statistical significance
  2. aIncludes both urinary tract infection and other maternal infections