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Table 1 Characteristics of mothers and children delivered by cesarean and vaginal delivery

From: Increased risk of allergic rhinitis among children delivered by cesarean section: a cross-sectional study nested in a birth cohort

Variables Total (n = 672)
N (%)
Cesarean delivery (n = 325)
N (%)
Vaginal delivery (n = 347)
N (%)
P **
Current age of the child in months (X ± SD) a 72.66 (5.32) 72.97 (5.18) 72.38 (5.43) 0.149
Age of the mother at the time of birth
  < 20 years 104 (15.5) 33 (10.2) 71 (20.5) <0.001
  ≥ 20 years 568 (84.5) 292 (89.8) 276 (79.5)
Gender of newborn
 Male 336 (50) 156 (48) 180 (51.9) 0.316
 Female 336 (50) 169 (52) 167 (48.1)
Weight at birth
  < 2.500 kg 30 (4.5) 312 (96) 330 (95.1) 0.570
  ≥ 2.500 kg 642 (95.5) 13 (4) 17 (4.9)
Gestational age
 <37 weeks 28 (4.2) 24 (7,4) 19 (5.5) 0.079
 ≥37 weeks 644 (95.7) 301 (92.6) 328 (94.5)
Family income
 Up to 2 minimum wages 477 (71) 153 (47.1) 42 (12.1) <0.001
  > 2 minimum wages 195 (29) 172 (52.9) 305 (87.9)
Mother’s schooling level
 Up to 8 years of schooling 202 (30.1) 265 (81.5) 205 (59.1) <0.001
  > 8 years of schooling 470 (69.9) 60 (18.5) 142 (40.9)
Exclusive breastfeeding up to the 4th month
 Yes 137 (20.4) 76 (23.4) 61 (17.6) 0.062
 No 535 (79.6) 249 (76.6) 286 (82.4)
Smoking during pregnancy
 Yes 20 (3) 10 (3.1) 10 (2.9) 0.882
 No 652 (97) 315 (96.9) 337 (97.1)
Number of persons who sleep in the room with the child
 <4 people 641 (95.1) 316 (97.2) 325 (93.7) 0.027
 ≥4 people 31 (4.6) 9 (2.8) 22 (6.3)
Frequency at nursery to the age of 2 years
 Yes 104 (15.5) 74 (22.8) 30 (8.6) <0.001
 No 568 (84.5) 251 (77.2) 317 (91.4)
Pneumonia ever in life
 Yes 41 (6.1) 17 (5.2) 24 (6.9) 0.362
 No 631 (93.9) 308 (94.8) 323 (93.1)
Bronchiolitis in the 1st year
 Yes 65 (9.7) 27 (8.3) 38 (11) 0.247
 No 607 (90.2) 298 (91.7) 309 (89)
Maternities
 Private 199 (29.6) 154 (47.4) 45 (13) <0.001
 Public 473 (70.4) 171 (52.6) 302 (87)
  1. ** Chi-square Test
  2. a Student’s Test