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Table 2 Pulse oximetry performance time and proportion of acceptable readings obtained within 1 min by site and by infant characteristics among young infants undergoing routine pulse oximetry at primary care clinics in Karachi, Pakistan

From: Utility and feasibility of integrating pulse oximetry into the routine assessment of young infants at primary care clinics in Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study

  Performance time (seconds), median (IQR) Acceptable Sp02 value obtained in ≤ 1 min, % (n)
  Site 1 Site 2 p Site 1 Site 2 p
Number of visits 481 381 - 481 381 -
Overall 44(39;50) 40(35;46) <0.0001 94.4(454) 94.5(360) 0.9485
Age (days)a
0 – 29 43(39;50) 40(34;45) <0.0001 95.5(317) 98.1(209) 0.1011
30 – 59 45(40;51) 39.5(35;49.5) <0.0001 91.5(137) 89.9(151) 0.5244
p 0.0771 0.2127   0.1193 0.0005  
Sex
Male 44(39;50) 38(35;46) <0.0001 95.3(244) 95.4(188) 0.9524
Female 44(40;50) 40(35;45) <0.0001 93.3(210) 93.5(172) 0.9532
p 0.7880 0.6813   0.3467 0.4038  
Weight (g)b
980 - 3319 43(39;50) 40(35;45) <0.0001 94.2(242) 96.5(166) 0.2693
3320 – 5900 45(39.5;50) 39(35;49) <0.0001 94.6(212) 92.8(194) 0.4339
p 0.5961 0.5959   0.8197 0.1164  
Reason for visitc
Well baby 43(39;49) 40(35;44) 0.0225 95.0(94) 95.8(23) 0.8569
Visit foriIllness 44(39;50) 39(35;46) <0.0001 94.2(360) 94.4(336) 0.9341
p 0.2563 0.8513   0.7849 0.7633  
At least one IMCI criteriond
No 44(39;50) 39(34;45) <0.0001 94.0(331) 95.2(260) 0.5104
Yes 45(39;50) 40(35;47.5) 0.0022 95.4(123) 92.6(100) 0.3701
p 0.8151 0.1584   0.5789 0.3078  
Time since start of study periode
First period 45(40;50) 40(36;45) p < 0.0001 97.1(233) 94.6(176) 0.1983
Second period 43(39;51) 38(33;46) p < 0.0001 91.7(221) 94.4(184) 0.2830
p 0.4007 0.0190   0.0103 0.9099  
  1. aAge in days categorized based on median. Correlation between performance time and age was also analyzed as a continuous variable: Site 1- Spearman’s Rho = 0.0927, p = 0.0422; Site 2- Spearman’s Rho = 0.0556, p = 0.2791
  2. bWeight in grams categorized based on median. Correlation between performance time and weight was also analyzed as a continuous variable: Site 1- Spearman’s Rho = 0.0625, p = 0.1710; Site 2- Spearman’s Rho = 0.0297, p = 0.5627
  3. cn = 861. One reason for visit was listed as “other”, and was excluded from these analyses
  4. dIntegrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) criteria assessed by the study worker: Temperature < 35.5 °C, temperature > 37.5 °C, respiratory rate ≥ 60, severe lower chest wall in-drawing, no movement or movement only on stimulation, observed convulsions, history of convulsions, history of poor feeding
  5. eDate of visit was used to categorize visits into study periods. First period included the first half of measurements for each site, while second period included the second half of measurements for each site. Correlation between performance time and time since start of the study was also analyzed as a continuous variable: Site 1- Spearman’s Rho = −0.0396, p = 0.3865; Site 2- Spearman’s Rho = −0.1809, p = 0.0004