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Table 2 Association between pubertal stage and cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs)

From: Associations of pubertal stage and body mass index with cardiometabolic risk in Hong Kong Chinese children: A cross-sectional study

  Male (n = 828) Female (n = 1157)
  Pre-pubertal1 (n = 205) Pubertal2 (n = 306) Late /Post-pubertal 3 (n = 317) p-value4 Pre-pubertal1 (n = 178) Pubertal2 (n = 370) Late/Post-pubertal3 (n = 609) p-value 4
Age (y) [median (IQR)] 9.5 (8.3 – 11.0) 12.1 (10.5 – 13.5) 16.0 (15.1 – 17.2)   8.4 (7.6 – 9.3) 12.1 (10.8 – 13.8) 15.9 (14.7 – 17.3)  
Cardiometabolic risk factors [N(%)]         
Increased waist circumference5 48 (23.4 %) 59 (19.3 %) 41 (12.9 %) 0.007 18 (10.1 %) 55 (14.9 %) 120 (19.7 %) 0.005
High triglyceride6 28 (14.4 %) 29 (9.7 %) 20 (6.3 %) 0.011 15 (9.0 %) 46 (12.5 %) 55 (9.0 %) 0.190
Low HDL-C7 18 (9.2 %) 28 (9.3 %) 26 (8.2 %) 0.873 17 (10.2 %) 26 (7.1 %) 35 (5.7 %) 0.128
High fasting plasma glucose8 3 (1.5 %) 7 (2.3 %) 10 (3.2 %) 0.573 0 (0.0 %) 9 (2.4 %) 7 (1.1 %) 0.065
High blood pressure9 58 (28.3 %) 62 (20.3 %) 46 (14.5 %) 0.001 32 (18.0 %) 62 (16.8 %) 72 (11.8 %) 0.033
Clustering of the above CMRFs10 9 (4.6 %) 12 (4.0 %) 10 (3.2 %) 0.705 3 (1.8 %) 10 (2.7 %) 10 (1.6 %) 0.495
Overweight/obese11 77 (37.6 %) 79 (25.8 %) 49 (15.5 %) <0.001 28 (15.7 %) 57 (15.4 %) 104 (17.1 %) 0.768
Obese 12 37 (18.0 %) 30 (9.8 %) 9 (2.8 %) <0.001 9 (5.1 %) 21 (5.7 %) 31 (5.1 %) 0.915
Cardiometabolic Risk Score [mean (SD)]         
Cardiometabolic Risk Score α13 0.65 (3.38) 0.38 (3.26) 0.55 (3.05) 0.620 −0.49 (2.96) 0.22 (2.72) 0.41 (2.92) 0.002
Cardiometabolic Risk Score β14 0.61 (2.88) 0.36 (2.60) 0.60 (2.59) 0.460 −0.08 (2.45) 0.23 (2.30) 0.28 (2.46) 0.220
  1. Pre-pubertal :Tanner pubertal stage 1
  2. Pubertal : Tanner pubertal stages 2 and 3
  3. Late/Post-pubertal : Tanner pubertal stages 4 and 5
  4. *p-value testing the statistical significance of the association between each of the CMRFs and pubertal stage
  5. Waist circumference ≥90th percentile (age- and sex-specific)
  6. Triglyceride ≥90th percentile (age- and sex-specific)
  7. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ≥10th percentile (age- and sex-specific)
  8. Fasting plasma glucose ≥ 5.6 mmol/L
  9. Systolic blood pressure (BP)/diastolic BP ≥90th percentile (age, sex and height specific)
  10. Clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) was defined as 3 or more of the above 5 CMRF
  11. Overweight : Body mass index (BMI) ≥85th percentile and <95th percentile (age- and sex-specific)
  12. Obese : BMI ≥95th percentile (age- and sex-specific)
  13. Cardiometabolic risk score α = Sum of components’ z score: Components of cardiometabolic risk score α includes z-score of sex-specific, age-adjusted waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (also height-adjusted), fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and minus z-score of sex-specific age-adjusted high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Cardiometabolic risk score β includes all components of risk score α except waist circumference