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Table 4 Associations between the categories of anthropometric parameters and the risk of high BP (univariate and multivariate analyses)

From: Association of neck circumference and high blood pressure in children and adolescents: a case–control study

Variables Prehypertension Hypertension Prehypertension/Hypertension
OR (95 % CI) aOR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) aOR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) aOR (95 % CI)
NC percentile categories:       
<90th 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
≥90th 2.88 2.99 3.39 4.05 3.28 3.75
(1.82–4.56) (1.88–4.77) (2.58–4.46) (3.03–5.41) (2.53–4.26) (2.86–4.91)
BMI categories:       
Normal weight 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Overweight/ obesity 3.43 3.53 3.94 4.40 3.83 4.24
(2.21–5.31) (2.27–5.48) (3.02–5.14) (3.32–5.83) (2.98–4.93) (3.26–5.51)
WC percentile categories:       
<75th 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
≥75th 3.26 3.37 3.81 4.22 3.70 3.97
(2.04–5.22) (2.09–5.42) (2.87–5.07) (3.12–5.70) (2.82–4.85) (2.99–5.26)
NC and BMI categories:       
NC < 90th and normal weight 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
NC ≥ 90th and normal weight 1.68 NS 1.75NS 1.87* 2.26 1.83* 2.12
(0.81–3.47) (0.84–3.65) (1.24–2.82) (1.48–3.47) (1.25–2.69) (1.43–3.15)
NC < 90th and overweight/obesity 2.44* 2.53* 2.63 2.83 2.59 2.83
(1.33–4.50) (1.36–4.68) (1.83–3.78) (1.93–4.13) (1.85–3.64) (1.98–4.02)
NC ≥ 90th and overweight/obesity 5.41 5.52 6.64 8.04 6.38 7.38
(3.05–9.63) (3.09–9.84) (4.58–9.62) (5.43–11.92) (4.47–9.12) (5.09–10.70)
NC and WC percentile categories:       
NC < 90th and WC < 75th 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
NC ≥ 90th and WC < 75th 2.59* 2.66* 2.20 2.52 2.28 2.56
(1.43–4.70) (1.46–4.86) (1.52–3.19) (1.70–3.72) (1.61–3.22) (1.79–3.66)
NC < 90th and WC ≥ 75th 3.10 3.16 2.54 2.52 2.65 2.68
(1.67–5.76) (1.68–5.91) (1.70–3.79) (1.65–3.84) (1.83–3.84) (1.82–3.94)
NC ≥ 90th and WC ≥ 75th 4.38 4.54 6.53 8.17 6.09 7.06
(2.26–8.49) (2.34–8.83) (4.39–9.71) (5.37–12.43) (4.15–8.95) (4.74–10.51)
  1. NC neck circumference; BMI body mass index; WC waist circumference
  2. OR odds ratio; aOR adjusted odds ratio for age and sex; CI confidence interval
  3. All results were significant at P < 0.001, except when noted (NS not significant; * – P < 0.05)