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Table 4 Relationship between wasting among children (0–59 months) with household, child, maternal characteristics in Malawi (2010), Tanzania (2009–10) and Zimbabwe (2005–6)

From: Is there a threshold level of maternal education sufficient to reduce child undernutrition? Evidence from Malawi, Tanzania and Zimbabwe

Dependent variable Weight-for-Height (% below -2SD) =1; 0 otherwise
  Malawi Tanzania Zimbabwe
Odds ratio t Odds ratio t Odds ratio T
Socioeconomic Factors
 Household head is female 1.37 0.90 0.92 −0.27 0.84 −0.98
 Total number of people in the household 1.08 1.36 1.01 0.40 0.84 −3.63b
 Rural residence dummy 1.37 0.79 1.32 1.04 1.05 0.13
 Wealth 0.97 −0.40 1.05 0.57 1.04 0.37
Child Demographic Factors
 Age of child (in months) 0.97 −4.45b 0.97 −4.16b 0.98 −3.96b
 Whether the child is male 1.18 0.94 1.39 1.94 1.17 0.92
 Large size of the child at birth 0.63 −1.75 0.61 −1.82 0.55 −3.27b
 Child is of multiple birth 2.22 1.51 0.68 −0.71 1.47 0.88
 Birth order 1.01 0.11 1.02 0.21 0.99 −0.10
Child Health Factors
 Had diarrhoea recently 0.84 −0.73 1.20 0.71 1.51 2.33c
Maternal Demographic Factors
 Mother’s current age 0.95 −1.57 1.00 0.03 1.02 1.06
 Mother’s body mass - underweight 1.55 1.16 2.32 3.48b 1.53 1.80
 Mother’s body mass - normal 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Mother’s body mass - overweight 0.65 −1.04 0.55 −1.94 1.05 0.21
 Mother’s body mass – pregnant and postpartum 0.94 −0.20 1.11 0.46 1.31 1.21
 Number of under-five children 0.76 −1.94 1.01 0.06 1.07 0.64
Mother’s education levela       
 Mother’s education – None 1.00   1.00   0.79 −0.56
 Mother’s education – Junior Primary 0.75 −1.19 0.95 −0.15 0.97 −0.09
 Mother’s education – Senior Primary 0.69 −1.36 0.55 −2.76b 1.00  
 Mother’s education – Junior Secondary 0.43 −1.75 0.33 −2.24c 0.61 −2.22c
 Mother’s education – Senior secondary + 0.34 −2.04c 0.33 −1.98c 0.15 −240c
 Household with safe water 0.82 −0.74 1.03 0.14 0.96 −0.22
 Household with improved toilet facility 1.25 0.77 1.04 0.19 0.85 −0.74
F Statistic 3.40b 4.74b 3.52b
LR χ2 127.65b 138.49b 76.35b
Pseudo R2 0.06 0.07 0.05
N 4,531 4,739 3,473
  1. Note: aWhile the reference category for maternal education in the multivariate analyses was “no education” in Malawi and Tanzania, it was changed to ‘senior primary’ in Zimbabwe because there were few cases of women (only 4 percent) who had no education in Zimbabwe. Using ‘no education’ as the reference category would not therefore yield any significant results for Zimbabwe; bsignificant at 1 % level; csignificant at 5 % level