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Table 2 Microbiological profile of paediatric bloodstream infection episodes (n = 864)

From: Trends in paediatric bloodstream infections at a South African referral hospital

BSI episodes n % Total pathogens isolated from 864 BSI episodes*  
Monomicrobial 818 94.7 914  
Polymicrobial    
- 2 pathogens 42 4.8  
- 3 pathogens 4 0.5  
Gram negatives Organism n = 550 % of Gram negatives Organism rank*
Enterobacteriaceae K. pneumoniae 154 28% 1
  E. coli 97 18% 3
  E. cloacae 30 5% 7
  S. marcescens 19 3% 10
  Salmonella spp 18 3%  
  (non-typhi)    
  Klebsiella spp 12 2%  
  Other (9 different genera) 30 5%  
  Total 360 65%  
Non-fermenting Gram negative bacilli A. baumannii 78 14% 5
  P. aeruginosa 20 4% 9
  Acinetobacter spp 16 3%  
  S. paucimobilis 9 2%  
  Other (9 different genera) 20 4%  
  Total 143 26%  
Other Gram negative organisms H. influenzae 23 4% 8
  N. meningitidis 11 2%  
  Other (6 different genera) 13 3%  
  Total 47 9%  
Gram positives Organism n = 296 % of Gram positives Organism rank*
Staphlylococci Staphylococcus aureus 131 44% 2
Streptococci Streptococcus pneumoniae 91 31% 4
Group B Streptococcus 19 6% 10
Enterococci Enterococcus spp 46 16% 6
Other Gram positive organisms Other (4 different genera) 9 3%  
Fungi Organism n = 68 % of Fungi Organism rank*
Candida spp Candida albicans 21 31% 9
Candida tropicalis 12 18%  
Candida parapsilosis 9 13%  
Candida glabrata 3 4%  
Candida krusei 2 3%  
All other candida spp 18 27%  
Other fungi Aspergillus spp, 1 4%  
Trichosporon spp, 1  
unidentified yeast 1  
BSI pathogens (n = 914) by type and place of infection onset for 864 BSI episodes
Community-acquired (CA-BSI) pathogens Hospital-acquired (HA-BSI) pathogens
n = 477 n = 437
CA-BSI ward pathogens # n = 433 % HA-BSI ward pathogens # n = 275 %
- Staphylococcus aureus 90 21 - Klebsiella pneumoniae 86 31
- Streptococcus pneumoniae 81 19 - Candida spp 28 10
- Escherichia coli 67 15 - Acinetobacter baumanni 26 10
- Other 195 45 - Other 135 49
CA-BSI ICU pathogens # n = 44 % HA-BSI ICU pathogens # n = 162 %
- Escherichia coli 9 21 - Acinetobacter baumanni 42 26
- Klebsiella pneumoniae 7 16 - Klebsiella pneumoniae 33 20
- Staphylococcus aureus 5 11 - Candida spp 22 14
- Other 23 52 - Other 65 40
  1. *Total pathogens isolated from 864 BSI episodes = 914 pathogens (818 monomicrobial + polymicrobial 42 × 2 isolates + 4 × 3 isolates) #CA-BSI = BC submitted within first 72 hours of admission; HA-BSI = BC submitted > 72 hours after admission; ICU = intensive care unit; *Organism rank reported for the top ten isolates only.