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Table 1 Clinical presentations of Chiari malformation type I in children

From: Abnormal movements associated with oropharyngeal dysfunction in a child with Chiari I malformation

  Tubbs et al. [5] Alabama Benglis et al. [4] Miami Caldarelli et al. [2] Roma Greenlee et al. [3] Iowa Albert et al. [6] Iowa Aitken et al. [7] San Francisco Park et al. [1] Boston
Study period 1989-2010 1999-2008 1993-2005 1987-2001 1984-2007 1997-1998 1988-1996
No. of children 500 124 30 31 39 51 68
Inclusion criteria - no surgery symptomatic age <6 age <6 age <20 -
Retrospective study yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
Age at diagnostis 11 7 5,5 3,5 3,5 11 12
Male % 54 - 40 42 39 - 48
Surgery 500 0 30 25 39 8 68
Asymptomatic % - 35 0 - - 37 -
Serious manifestations % - - - - - - -
Loss of consciousness % 1,2 1,6 - - - 4 -
Headache % 40 39 57 23 46 55 63
Neck pain % - 11 - - - 12 -
Ataxia % 4 - 20 - - 8 16
Sleep apnea % 5 - 20 29 - - -
Motor deficit % 10 4 70 3 - 20 45
Sensory deficit % - 12 36 6 - 6 -
Scoliosis % 18 4 7 23 28 2 16
Dysphagia, oropharyngeal dysfunction % 4 - 7 35 74 - -
Vomiting % 3 16 3 - - - -
Dyspnea % 1,2 - - - - - -
Dysarthria % 5 - 7 - - 4 -
Abnormal movement - - - 19 - - -
  1. - = no value.