|Study quality||Participants (n), age, inclusion criteria and setting||Interventions and follow-up||Outcome measures|
O'Connor et al, 2006|
Quasi – RCT
Alternate allocation; blinding unclear; follow-up 93%; ITT analysis unclear; sample size calculation provided.
n = 100, 6 to 12 years|
FAS, Partial FAS or ARND & social skills deficit & verbal IQ ≥ 70
Children with major sensory or motor deficits or a past diagnosis of mental retardation or pervasive developmental disorder were excluded
Recruited from community, USA
CFT or delayed treatment|
Twelve 90-minute sessions over twelve weeks
Parents attended concurrent information sessions on FASD and social skills
Follow-up: 3 months
Test of Social Skills Knowledge: The CFT group showed significant improvement in knowledge compared to the control group (F(1, 90) = 56.52, p = 0.0001). At three months, social skills knowledge was maintained (t(48) = 1.07, p < 0.29).|
Social Skills Rating System Parent : social skills (F(1, 93) = 5.03, p < 0.03) and problem behaviours (F(1, 93) = 4.05, p < 0.05) significantly improved in the CFT group compared to the control group. At three months, parent reported social skills continued to improve (t(48) = 3.35, p < 0.002) and the decrease in problem behaviours was maintained (t(48) = 1.48, p < 0.15).
Social Skills Rating System Teacher : no significant difference in social skills or problem behaviours between the groups immediately post-intervention or at three months.
Pre- and post-intervention
n = 1, 9 years|
Recruited from a Fetal Alcohol Clinic, USA
Social communication intervention|
Two one-hour individual sessions per week, then four two-hour group sessions
Follow-up: 6 weeks
More strategies on how to behave in a variety of social situations.|
Increased number of mental state verbs used.
Randomized (method unclear); allocation concealment unclear; blinding unclear; follow up 100%; ITT analysis unclear; study power not provided.
n = 20, 6 to 12 years|
FASD Inuit children, Canada
Attention Process Training or contact sessions|
Follow-up: 3 weeks
Measures of sustained attention: children in the intervention group showed significant improvement.|
Measures of non-verbal reasoning ability: children in the intervention group showed significant improvement.
Measures of executive function: no significant difference.