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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of vaccinated and comparison groups in the first 6 months of life

From: Pneumococcal vaccination and otitis media in Australian Aboriginal infants: comparison of two birth cohorts before and after introduction of vaccination

Clinical Characteristic Vaccinated
N = 94
Comparison
N = 41
Mean Difference or Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Mean Age at first examination (in days) 41 60 -18 (-31 – -5)
  Well clinic visits 4.84 10.3 -5.48 (-7.21 – -3.75)
  Sick clinic visits 6.95 8.90 -1.96 (-4.46 – 0.55)
  Upper respiratory illnesses* 1.33 1.00 0.33 (-0.21 – 0.87)
  Lower respiratory illnesses 0.98 3.21 -2.24 (-2.89 – -1.59)
  Non-respiratory illnesses 2.80 2.71 0.09 (-1.06 – 1.24)
  Diarrhoeal illnesses 0.62 0.85 -0.24 (-0.76 – 0.28)
  Antibiotic prescriptions 3.54 4.51 -0.97 (-2.30 – 0.37)
Proportion Failure to thrive 5 (5%) 1 (2%) 2.25 (0.24 – 109)
  External nasal discharge 27 (29%) 12 (29%) 1.02 (0.45 – 2.31)
  Admitted to hospital 18 (19%) 9 (22%) 0.84 (0.32 – 2.37)
  Late immunisation† 14 (15%) 18 (44%) 0.22 (0.09 – 0.56)
  Tests positive for anaemia‡ 24% 36% -12 (-40 – 15)
  1. Note: 3 vaccinated and 10 comparison participants were excluded from clinical comparison in the first 6 months of life as their first examinations occurred at greater than 6 months of age.
  2. *Upper respiratory illness includes OM or other upper respiratory tract infections.
  3. †Immunisation greater than one month after due date.
  4. ‡Anaemia defined as haemoglobin level less than 9 g/dL.