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Table 3 Mean energy intake and macronutrient intakes in preschool children by gender and the household wealth status

From: Energy and macronutrient intakes in preschool children in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Nutrients   Poorest (n = 225) Medium (n = 222) Wealthiest (n = 223) p-value
   Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI  
Energy (kcal) Total 1592.2 1541.8, 1642.6 1598.8 1555.0, 1642.7 1617.8 1578.3, 1657.2 0.555
  Boys 1583.1 1509.0, 1657.4 1677.2 1590.6, 1763.9 1681.3 1622.0, 1740.6 0.106
  Girls 1601.3 1540.0, 1662.6 1534.6 1484.5, 1584.7 1543.4 1492.0, 1594.9 0.532
Protein (g) Total 72.5 70.4, 74.6 76.3 72.6, 80.1 76.1 74.3, 77.9 0.070
  Boys 71.4 68.2, 74.5 70.5 67.6, 73.4 79.3 77.1, 81.6 0.0061
  Girls 73.6 70.0, 77.3 73.1 71.0, 75.3 72.3 69.9, 74.7 0.308
Animal protein (g) Total 25.9 24.8, 27.0 47.2 45.4, 49.0 50.1 48.7, 51.5 0.0081
  Boys 25.7 24.2, 27.3 48.9 46.1, 51.7 52.6 50.9, 54.2 0.0001
  Girls 51.3 48.0, 54.5 45.8 43.4, 48.3 51.2 49.1, 53.3 0.270
Vegetable protein (g) Total 28.1 26.9, 29.3 25.7 24.9, 26.4 25.8 24.8, 26.8 0.931
  Boys 27.9 26.2, 29.6 27.2 25.9, 28.5 26.6 25.2, 27.9 0.405
  Girls 26.1 24.9, 27.3 24.4 23.5, 25.3 24.9 23.6, 26.2 0.633
Fat (g) Total 37.8 36.3, 39.2 38.5 36.6, 40.4 38.8 37.5, 40.0 0.581
  Boys 37.4 34.9, 39.8 39.8 36.6, 43.0 40.6 38.9, 42.4 0.099
  Girls 38.2 36.0, 40.3 37.5 35.6, 39.4 36.6 35.0, 38.3 0.786
Animal fat (g) Total 25.4 24.3, 26.4 26.5 24.9, 28.2 27.3 26.1, 28.5 0.060
  Boys 25.2 23.7, 26.8 27.0 24.5, 29.5 28.7 27.5, 30.0 0.0081
  Girls 25.5 23.7, 27.3 26.1 24.5, 27.8 25.6 24.1, 27.1 0.966
Vegetable fat (g) Total 12.2 11.5, 12.9 11.8 11.2, 12.4 11.3 10.8, 11.9 0.279
  Boys 12.0 10.9, 13.0 12.6 11.4, 13.7 11.8 10.8, 12.7 0.454
  Girls 12.4 11.5, 13.3 11.2 10.3, 12.1 10.9 10.2, 11.5 0.223
Carbohydrate (g) Total 240.8 229.6, 252.1 240.4 234.3, 246.6 241.7 234.3, 249.0 0.803
  Boys 241.3 232.5, 250.1 254.0 241.3, 266.8 250.2 240.1, 260.3 0.248
  Girls 241.1 232.6, 249.5 229.3 222.8, 235.8 231.7 221.9, 241.4 0.687
Free sugar (g) Total 25.9 23.6, 28.1 26.1 24.7, 27.61 24.5 22.6, 26.5 0.659
  Boys 25.9 23.6, 28.2 25.6 26.3, 30.9 26.4 24.3, 28.4 0.199
  Girls 25.8 22.8, 28.8 24.1 22.0, 26.2 22.4 20.2, 24.7 0.547
  1. 1 Means are significantly different between poorest and wealthiest groups, based on ANOVA Bonferroni procedure