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Table 2 Mean and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CIs) of the height-for-age z-score, at preschool age (0 – 5 years old) and current (10 – 17 years old), of adolescents selected characteristics

From: Effect of tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on growth from birth to adolescence: a cohort study

  N Height-for-age 0 – 5 years Height-for-age 10 – 17 years
Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI
Gender      
  Male 1224 −0.20 −0.28; −0.12 0.21 0.14; 0.28
  Female 1181 −0.14 −0.22; −0.07 0.26 0.20; 0.33
   p < 0.01 p = 0.29
Age (years)      
  10 409 −0.24 −0.36; −0.13 0.27 0.17; 0.37
  11 551 −0.11 −0.22; −0.01 0.31 0.22; 0.39
  12 322 −0.16 −0.29; −0.04 0.31 0.19; 0.42
  13 183 −0.12 −0.29; −0.05 0.25 0.10; 0.39
  ≥ 14 251 −0.26 −0.37; −0.15 −0.08 −0.19; 0.03
   p = 0.31 p < 0.01
Socioeconomic position at preschool age *     
  A (high-income) 86 0.31 0.03; 0.59 0.59 0.30; 0.87
  B 289 0.13 −0.2; 0.28 0.41 0.29; 0.54
  C 1019 −0.13 −0.21; −0.05 0.28 0.21; 0.35
  D 807 −0.35 −0.45; −0.25 0.13 0.05; 0.21
  E (low-income) 204 −0.33 −0.52; −0.15 −0.01 −0.17; 0.15
   p < 0.01 p < 0.01
Current Socioeconomic position *    
  A (high-income) 86 0.16 −0.05; 0.38 0.49 0.26; 0.71
  B 603 0.00 −0.08; 0.09 0.33 0.25; 0.41
  C 959 −0.29 −0.36; −0.21 0.17 0.11; 0.24
  D e E (low-income) 68 −0.61 −0.92; −0.30 0.14 −0.40; 0.12
   p < 0.01 p < 0.01
Maternal schooling (years)    
  ≥ 12 206 0.41 −0.09; 0.17 0.39 0.26; 0.51
  9 – 11 638 −0.11 −0.18; −0.03 0.28 0.21; 0.35
  5 – 8 1363 −0.31 −0.42; −0.20 0.15 0.06; 0.23
  0 – 4 177 −0.44 −0.66; −0.23 −0.04 −0.25; 0.18
   p < 0.01 p < 0.01
Paternal schooling (years)    
  ≥ 12 221 0.05 −0.09; 0.18 0.37 0.25; 0.49
  9 – 11 555 −0.06 −0.14; 0.02 0.31 0.23; 0.38
  5 – 8 1044 −0.03 −0.41; −0.19 0.17 0.08; 0.26
  0 – 4 136 −0.27 −0.46; −0.07 0.20 0.03; 0.38
   p < 0.01 p = 0.03
Maternal height      
  1° tertile 795 −0.57 −0.66; 0.48 −0.14 −0.22; −0.66
  2° tertile 795 −0.06 −0.15; 0.03 0.23 0.15; 0.31
  3° tertile 794 0.11 0.01; 0.20 0.61 0.54; 0.69
   p < 0.01 p < 0.01
Birth weight (g)      
  ≥ 4000 143 0.45 0.23; 0.66 0.55 0.38; 0.74
  3000-3999 1619 −0.02 −0.08; 0.05 0.29 0.23; 0.35
  2500-2999 483 −0.60 −0.69; −0.47 0.04 −0.06; 0.15
  < 2500 160 −1.17 −1.40; −0.93 −0.06 −0.26; 0.14
   p < 0.01 p < 0.01
Breastfeeding      
  Any 1945 −0,24 −0.30; 0.19 0.24 0.18; 0.29
  Never 460 0.09 −0.04; 0.22 0.22 0.10; 0.33
   p < 0.10 p = 0.72
Maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood     
  During both periods 212 −0.56 −0.74; −0.38 −0,02 −0.21; 0.17
  Only during childhood 76 −0.22 −0.48; 0.04 0,07 −0.19; 0.34
  Only during pregnancy 59 −0.46 −0.76; 0.17 0,23 −0.19; 0.67
  No smoking 2042 −0.14 −0.19; −0.09 0,24 0.22; 0.32
   p = 0.01 p < 0.01
  1. p value from t test or ANOVA.
  2. *According to the criteria of the Brazilian Marketing Research Association (childhood: 2003, adolescent: 2008): based on the number of home appliances, cars and paid maids, and education level of the head of household.
  3. Missing values: current socioeconomic position: 2; maternal schooling: 21; paternal schooling: 449; maternal height: 4.