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Table 4 Effect of various factors on the course of developmental delay

From: Predictors of severity and outcome of global developmental delay without definitive etiologic yield: a prospective observational study

Factors Risk ratio for poor DQ progress † (95% CI)
  Unadjusted Adjusted
Prenatal   
Fecundation in vitro 1.3 (0.3–7.9) 1.1 (0.3–6.5)
Drug exposure in pregnancy ‡ 1.3 (0.5–6.6) 1.4 (0.6–7.4)
Tobacco smoke exposure in pregnancy 1.1 (0.7–2.2) 1.2 (0.7–3.0)
Multiple gestation 1.5 (0.8–6.9) 1.6 (0.8–7.4)
Prematurity 3.0 (1.3–7.8)* 2.1 (0.8–7.2)
IUGR 4.3 (1.5–9.0)* 5.1 (1.8–11.0)*
Hypertensive disease of pregnancy § 1.1 (0.3–7.8) 1.0 (0.3–6.9)
Hemorrhagic complications of pregnancy || 1.2 (0.4–7.1) 1.0 (0.4–6.5)
Perinatal   
Cesarean section 1.0 (0.5–2.8) 1.0 (0.5–3.2)
Birth asphyxia 1.5 (0.7–7.7) 1.6 (0.8–8.1)
Neonatal hypoxia ¶ 2.3 (1.2–7.7)* 2.0 (0.8–7.0)
Neonatal infection 1.2 (0.4–9.0) 1.2 (0.5–8.5)
Other   
Low socio-economic status** 4.8 (2.4–9.9)* 4.6 (2.0–7.8)*
No adherence to treatment †† 5.5 (2.9–10.4)* 8.5 (3.4–15.5)*
  1. Data are relative risk ratios calculated by logistic regression analysis. Unadjusted effect is the effect of each factor separately. Adjusted effect is the effect of each factor adjusted for the effect of the others (multiple regression model). Significant effect is indicated by (*).
  2. † Poor DQ progress defined as DQ(2-year visit)–DQ(initial visit) less than population median.
  3. ‡ exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs; § preeclampsia, eclampsia; || placental abruption, placenta previa; ¶ need for ventilatory support due to respiratory distress or severe apneas.
  4. **N?=?60; †† N?=?50.
  5. DQ indicates developmental quotient; IUGR intrauterine growth restriction.