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Table 1 Initial developmental quotient in relation to various prenatal and perinatal risk factors

From: Predictors of severity and outcome of global developmental delay without definitive etiologic yield: a prospective observational study

   N DQ P
Prenatal factors     
Fecundation in vitro yes 7 46 ± 12.1 0.124
  no 135 52.5 ± 10.8  
Drug exposure in pregnancy* yes 14 51.2 ± 11.3 0.734
  no 128 52.3 ± 11.5  
Tobacco smoke exposure in pregnancy yes 42 50.0 ± 11.4 0.127
  no 100 53.1 ± 10.8  
Multiple gestation yes 12 44.1 ± 11.2 0.012
  no 130 52.9 ± 11.4  
Prematurity yes 43 46.8 ± 11.6 <0.001
  no 99 54.5 ± 11.0  
Post-term birth yes 11 50.1 ± 12.3 0.517
  no 131 52.4 ± 11.2  
IUGR yes 32 42.8 ± 11.1 <0.001
  no 110 54.9 ± 11.4  
Hypertensive disease of pregnancy † yes 9 44.2 ± 10.9 0.030
  no 133 52.7 ± 11.3  
Hemorrhagic complications of pregnancy ‡ yes 13 48.3 ± 11.6 0.180
  no 129 52.6 ± 10.9  
Perinatal factors     
Cesarean section yes 55 51.3 ± 11.3 0.445
  no 87 52.8 ± 11.4  
Birth asphyxia yes 18 45.8 ± 12.0 0.012
  no 124 53.1 ± 11.3  
Neonatal hypoxia § yes 40 48.4 ± 11.5 0.014
  no 102 53.7 ± 11.4  
Neonatal infection yes 9 46.3 ± 12.2 0.109
  no 133 52.6 ± 11.3  
  1. Data are means ± SD.
  2. *exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs; † preeclampsia, eclampsia; ‡ placental abruption, placenta previa; § need for ventilatory support due to respiratory distress or severe apneas;
  3. DQ indicates developmental quotient; IUGR intrauterine growth restriction.