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Table 4 Risk factors associated with parental concerns on PEDS indicating high developmental risk

From: A systematic review of the prevalence of parental concerns measured by the Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS)indicating developmental risk

Risk factor N studies Summary effect OR (95% CI) P value Heterogeneity (I2)
Child level     
Male gender 11 1.68 (1.48,1.87) <0.001 88.1%
Male gender (aOR) 3 2.01 (1.38, 2.94) <0.001 91.6%
>3 years of age 7 1.83 (1.39,2.41) <0.001 92.7%
Low birth weight 2 1.95 (1.53,2.49) <0.001 0.0%
Poor/fair child health status 5 3.68 (2.66,5.08) <0.001 68%
Special health care needs 2 4.86 (2.81,8.38) <0.001 98%
Family level     
Poor maternal mental health (aOR) 3 1.61(1.31,1.99) <0.001 0.0%
Low socioeconomic status 8 2.12(1.65,2.72) <0.001 93.9%
Low socioeconomic status (aOR) 2 1.66 (1.08,2.53) 0.019 0.0%
Less than high school education 6 1.79 (1.14,2.79) 0.011 95.5%
Less than high school education (aOR) 3 1.94 (0.60,6.23) 0.26 98.8%
Being read to less than daily 4 1.47(1.28,1.67) <0.001 30.6%
Family size (6 or more people in household) 4 1.18(0.83,1.68) 0.35 91.9%
Single parent 7 1.46 (1.16,1.84) 0.001 96.8%
Single parent (aOR) 2 0.94(0.75, 1.17) 0.57 0.0%
Ethnicity (vs White)     
African American 7 1.95 (1.43,2.66) <0.001 90.5%
African American (aOR) 2 1.40 (1.10,1.78) 0.006 0.0%
Indigenous 6 1.98 (1.37,2.86) <0.001 63.6%
Hispanic 4 2.24(1.83,2.72) <0.001 88.9%
Hispanic (aOR) 2 1.54(1.16,2.04) 0.03 0.0%
Language spoken     
English as a second language (all) 5 1.61(1.12,2.33) 0.01 94.2%
English as a second language (Spanish) 5 1.48(0.87,2.53) 0.15 96.5%
Service Level     
No Usual Health Care/Medical Home(USA) 5 2.27(1.35,3.81) 0.002 84.3%
No or Public Health Insurance 4 1.85(1.45,2.37) <0.001 95.2%
No Health Insurance (aOR) 2 2.01(1.01,4.02) 0.048 57.2%
Does not attend formal childcare 4 0.88(0.77,0.99) 0.040 0%
  1. aOR = adjusted OR.