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Table 1 Included studies characteristics and prevalence rates*

From: A systematic review of the prevalence of parental concerns measured by the Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS)indicating developmental risk

First author Country Age (months) Sample size Quality score/8 High risk% (95% CI) Moderate risk% (95% CI) High and moderate risk% (95% CI) Low/no risk% (95% CI)
Armstrong [15] Australia 0-95 246 3 11.4 (8.0-16.0) 21.9 (17.2-27.6) 33.3 (27.7-39.5) 66.7 (60.5-72.3)
Bethell [29] USA 10-71 22883 8 9.6(9.2-10.0) 15.9 (15.5-16.4) 25.5 (25.0-26.1) 74.5 (73.9-75.0)
CHIS [50] USA 4-60 2884 7 25.6 (23.6-27.5) 17.4 (15.6-19.2 43.0 (41.2-44.8) 57.0 (55.2-58.8)
CHIS [49] USA 4-60 3029 7 19.9 (18.3-21.5) 18.0 (16.4-19.6) 37.9 (36.2-39.2) 62.2 (60.4-63.9)
CHIS [48] USA 4-60 3058 7 26.3 (24.5-28.2) 18.3(16.7-19.9) 44.7 (72.9-46.4) 55.3 (53.6-57.1)
CHIS [47] USA 4 to 60 3096 7 20.1 (17.6-22.5) 19.7 (17.4-22.0) 39.8 (38.1-41.5) 60.2 (58.5-61.9)
Chuan [24] Malaysia 12-72 86 2 26 (17.5-35.8) NA NA 17.0 (10.8-27.0)
Coghlan [28] Australia 18-69 262 3 9.2 (6.2-13.3) 18.7 (14.4-23.9) 27.9 (22.8-33.6) 72.1 (66.4-77.2)
Davies [25] UK 0-24 76 5 2.6 (0.2-9.8) 13.2 (7.2-22.8) 15.8 (9.2-25.8) 84.2 (74.2-90.8)
Glascoe [32] USA 24-84 408 5 NA NA 34.6 (30.1-39.3) 65.4 (60.7-69.9)
Glascoe [58] USA 3-93 (mean 46.5 SD 21.8) 771 5 11.0 (9–13.4) 26.0 (23.0-29.2) 37.0 (33.6-40.4) 63.0 (59.6-66.4)
Glascoe [33] USA mean 36 257 4 41.0 (35.0-47.0) 40.0 (34.3-46.2) 81.0 (75.6-85.3) 19.0 (14.7-24.4)
Glascoe [33] USA mean 36 744 4 23.0 (20.1-26.2) 26.0 (22.9-29.2) 49.0 (45.4-52.5) 51.0 (47.5-54.7)
Glascoe [14] USA 0.3-95 (mean 26 SD 20.6) 47531 6 4.5 (4.3-4.7) 13.7 (13.4-14.0) 18.2 (17.9-18.6) 81.8 (81.5-82.1)
Gustawan [59] Indonesia 3-12 170 3 NA NA 31.0 (24.2-37.9) 69.0 (62.1-75.8)
Ibironke [56] USA 6-71 (mean 38.5 SD 18.4) 2381 7 NA NA 21.4 (19.8-23.1) 78.6 (76.9-80.2)
Kiing [41] Singapore 1-83 1806 3 7.5 (6.4-8.8) 26.0 (24.1-28.1) 33.5 (31.4-35.7) 66.0 (64.3-68.6)
Kosht-Fedyshin [42] Tanzania 0-60 20 4 35.0 (18.1-56.9) 0.0 35.0 (18.1-56.9) 65.0 (43.1-81.9)
Limbos [43] Canada 12-60 331 5 13.9 (10.6-18.1) 39.6 (34.5-45.0) 53.5 (48.1-58.8) 46.5 (41.2-51.9)
Malhi [44] India 24-60 79 2 NA NA 39.2 (29.2-50.3) 60.8 (49.7-70.8)
Matibag [45] Philippines 24-60 (mean 53.6) 283 2 15.0 (11.2-19.5) NA NA NA
McGookin [35] USA 9-24 385 3 5.2(3.4-8.0) 17.4 (13.9-21.5) 22.6 (18.7-27.1) 77.4 (73.0-81.3)
Ng [18] Canada 0-83 (mean 46.1) 419 6 9.3 (6.9-12.5) 18.9 (15.4-22.9) 28.2 (24.1-32.7) 72.0 (67.3-75.9)
NSCH (2011/2012) [16] USA 4-60 28540 8 77.0 (10.1-11.9) 15.2 (14.3-16.1) 26.2(25.7-26.7) 73.8 (72.7-75.0)
Oreto [46] Philippines 0-84 (means 53) 318 4 15.1 (11.6-19.5) 17.0 (13.3-21.5) 32.1 (27.2-37.4) 67.9 (62.6-72.8)
Palarca [51] Philippines 0.5-96 (means 52.6) 421 3 9.0 (6.6-12.2) 5.0 (3.3-7.6) 14.0 (11.0-17.7) 86.0 (82.3-89.0)
Restall (2009) [52] Canada 60 290 6 13.1 (9.7-17.5) 32.4 (27.3-38.0) 45.5 (39.9-51.3) 54.5 (48.7-60.1)
Rose-Jacobs [37] USA 4-36 2010 5 13.8 (12.4-15.4) NA NA NA
Roux [26] USA <60 2845 3 28.2 (26.6-29.9) 27.5 (25.9-29.2) 55.7 (53.9-57.5) 44.3 (42.5-46.1)
Sarmiento Campos [31] Spain 6-42 1089 3 8.5 (7.0-10.4) 23.0 (20.7-25.7) 31.6 (28.9-34.4) 68.4 (65.6-71.1)
Sices [38] USA 9-31 (means 17.6 SD 6.1) 60 2 26.7 (17.1-39.1) 10.0 (4.4-20.6) 36.7 (25.6-49.4) 63.3(50.6-74.4)
Stevens [7] USA 4.35 2068 6 23.4 (21.6-25.3) 24.9 (23.1-26.8) 48.3 (46.2-50.5) 51.7 (49.5-53.9)
Theeranate [53] Thailand 0-72 216 3 NA NA 4.2 (2.1-7.9) 95.8 (92.1-97.9)
Tough [40] Canada Mean 38 (SD 8) 792 4 10.8 (8.9-13.2) 30.2 (27.1-33.5) 41.0 (37.7-44.5) 59.0 (55.5-62.3)
VSEHQ (2008) [54] Australia 60-83 54602 6 7.2 (7.0-7.4) 16.5 (16.2-16.8) 23.7 (23.3-24.0) 76.3 (76.0-76.7)
Wake [55] Australia 63.4-90 853 3 NA NA 35.0 (31.9-38.3) 65.0 (61.7-68.1)
Zuckerman [34] USA <72 24933 7 NA NA 22.4 (21.9-23.0) 77.6 (77.05-78.1)
  1. *quality rating system as per quality rating tool developed by Public Health Agency in Canada [19].