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Table 3 Energy and macronutrient intakes in the studied 6-year-old children

From: Dietary intake in 6-year-old children from southern Poland: part 1 - energy and macronutrient intakes

Energy/nutrient Reference values Girls (n = 64) Boys (n = 56) All children (n = 120) P Girls (n = 64) Boys (n = 56) All children (n = 120)
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD   Median SE Median SE Median SE
Energy               
(kcal) body weight dependent 1781 310 1907 318 1840 319 0.035 1746 39 1863 43 1812 29
(kJ) 7462 1298 7986 1332 7707 1335 0.034 7313 162 7809 178 7589 122
Total protein               
(g) body weight dependent 59.1 10.8 62.6 12.1 60.7 11.5 0.145 57.1 1.3 60.5 1.6 58.4 1.1
(g/kg body weight) 0.841 2.6 0.6 2.7 0.5 2.7 0.6 0.758 2.5 0.8 2.7 0.7 2.6 0.5
(% of energy) 10-15% 13.4 1.8 13.3 1.7 13.4 1.7 0.935 13.0 0.2 13.7 0.2 13.2 0.2
(g/1000 kcal) NA 33.4 4.4 32.9 4.2 33.2 4.3 0.908 32.3 0.5 33.9 0.6 32.8 0.4
Animal protein               
(g) NA 40.1 9.4 41.7 10.5 40.8 9.9 0.386 38.9 1.2 40.9 1.4 39.3 0.9
(% of total protein) NA 67.4 5.3 66.0 6.3 66.7 5.8 0.538 68.1 0.7 68.0 0.8 68.1 0.5
(g/1000 kcal) NA 22.7 4.6 22.0 4.5 22.3 4.6 0.929 22.1 0.6 22.8 0.6 22.3 0.4
Plant protein               
(g) NA 19.0 3.2 20.9 3.7 19.9 3.6 0.003 18.9 0.4 20.5 0.5 19.6 0.3
(% of total protein) NA 32.6 5.3 34.0 6.3 33.3 5.8 0.538 31.9 0.6 32.0 0.8 31.9 0.5
(g/1000 kcal) NA 10.7 1.0 11.0 1.2 10.8 1.1 0.183 10.7 0.1 11.0 0.2 10.8 0.1
Total fat               
(g) NA 64.7 13.7 72.2 18.2 68.2 16.3 0.026 64.5 1.7 69.0 2.4 66.1 1.5
(% of energy) 20-30% 32.2 4.1 33.3 3.8 32.7 4.0 0.062 32.2 0.5 33.5 0.5 32.7 0.4
(g/1000 kcal) NA 36.3 4.6 37.6 4.3 36.9 4.5 0.057 36.3 0.6 37.9 0.6 37.0 0.4
Saturated fatty acids               
(g) NA 27.87 6.82 31.98 9.14 29.79 8.21 0.006 27.89 0.85 30.64 1.22 29.13 0.75
(% of energy) <10% 14.1 2.3 14.9 2.3 14.5 2.3 0.038 14.0 0.3 14.6 0.3 14.4 0.2
(g/1000 kcal) NA 15.62 2.50 16.59 2.54 16.07 2.56 0.038 15.56 0.31 16.21 0.34 16.05 0.23
Polyunsaturated fatty acids               
(g) NA 8.15 3.11 8.40 2.58 8.26 2.87 0.474 7.71 0.39 7.91 0.34 7.87 0.26
(% of energy) 6-10% 4.2 1.7 4.0 1.1 4.1 1.4 0.846 3.8 0.2 3.7 0.1 3.8 0.1
(g/1000 kcal) NA 4.62 1.88 4.41 1.21 4.52 1.60 0.842 4.24 0.23 4.16 0.16 4.22 0.15
Monounsaturated fatty acids               
(g) NA 23.98 5.34 26.94 7.17 25.36 6.41 0.039 23.94 0.67 25.13 0.96 24.38 0.58
(% of energy) >10%2 12.1 1.7 12.6 1.8 12.3 1.8 0.108 12.1 0.2 12.4 0.2 12.2 0.2
(g/1000 kcal) NA 13.45 1.85 14.03 2.05 13.72 1.96 0.108 13.46 0.23 13.81 0.27 13.57 0.18
Cholesterol               
(mg) <300 269 85 277 83 273 84 0.474 244 11 260 11 257 8
(g/1000 kcal) NA 151 41 145 33 148 37 0.621 141 5 137 4 140 3
Total carbohydrates               
(g) NA 254.2 49.1 266.0 41.1 259.7 45.7 0.160 249.9 6.1 259.6 5.5 255.7 4.2
(g/1000 kcal) NA 142.5 11.8 140.1 11.0 141.4 11.5 0.073 141.6 1.5 138.5 1.5 140.1 1.0
Available carbohydrates               
(g) 1303 239.1 47.0 250.0 38.8 244.2 43.6 0.170 233.1 5.9 243.8 5.2 240.9 4.0
(% of energy) 55-70%4 53.6 4.6 52.7 4.1 53.2 4.4 0.084 53.3 0.6 52.3 0.6 52.7 0.4
(g/1000 kcal) NA 134.0 11.5 131.6 10.3 132.9 11.0 0.080 133.3 1.4 130.8 1.4 131.8 1.0
Lactose               
(g) NA 17.1 7.4 17.3 7.3 17.2 7.3 0.975 16.5 0.9 15.3 1.0 15.9 0.7
(% of energy) NA 3.9 1.6 3.6 1.4 3.7 1.5 0.420 3.9 0.2 3.6 0.2 3.6 0.1
(g/1000 kcal) NA 9.6 4.0 9.1 3.5 9.4 3.8 0.420 9.7 0.5 8.9 0.5 9.1 0.3
Sucrose               
(g) NA 83.8 25.9 82.5 19.6 83.2 23.1 0.770 81.1 3.2 82.8 2.6 82.2 2.1
(% of energy) NA 18.6 4.1 17.4 3.5 18.0 3.9 0.035 18.7 0.5 17.5 0.5 18.2 0.4
(g/1000 kcal) NA 46.5 10.3 43.4 8.9 45.1 9.7 0.035 46.6 1.3 43.8 1.2 45.6 0.9
Starch               
(g) NA 111.1 20.2 124.7 21.9 117.5 22.0 0.001 108.2 2.5 126.4 2.9 114.5 2.0
(% of energy) NA 25.1 3.0 26.3 3.0 25.6 3.0 0.030 24.6 0.4 26.0 0.4 25.3 0.3
(g/1000 kcal) NA 62.7 7.4 65.7 7.5 64.1 7.6 0.030 61.5 0.9 65.1 1.0 63.3 0.7
Dietary fibre               
(g) 145 15.2 3.0 16.0 3.6 15.6 3.3 0.166 15.1 0.4 15.8 0.5 15.2 0.3
(g/1000 kcal) NA 8.6 1.2 8.5 1.7 8.5 1.5 0.293 8.4 0.2 8.1 0.2 8.4 0.1
Total water               
(g) 16005 1478 235 1506 231 1491 233 0.515 1463 29 1492 31 1470 21
(g/1000 kcal) NA 838 106 799 113 819 111 0.034 831 13 774 15 815 10
  1. P – significance; NA – not available; NS – not significant (P > 0.05).
  2. 1EAR.
  3. 2Calculated by difference as: total fat – (saturated fatty acids + polyunsaturated fatty acids).
  4. 3RDA.
  5. 4Calculated by difference: as the percentage of total energy – energy from total protein – energy from total fat.
  6. 5AI.