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Table 1 Summary of published criteria for referral for individuals who may have fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder by criteria content *

From: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: development of consensus referral criteria for specialist diagnostic assessment in Australia

Criterion main content Chudley [12] Loock [29] CDC [14] Astley [15]
1. Any confirmed prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) - - - Yes
2. Confirmed significant PAE† Yes Yes Yes -
3. 3 characteristic FAS facial anomalies Yes - Yes Yes
4. PAE (significant) and 3 characteristic FAS facial anomalies - Yes - -
5. PAE (known or probable significant) and 1 facial anomaly and growth deficit Yes Yes - -
6. PAE (known or probable significant) and 1 facial anomaly and CNS deficit Yes Yes - -
7. PAE (known or probable significant) and CNS deficit - Yes - -
8. 1 facial anomaly and growth deficit and CNS deficit - Yes Yes -
9. 1 facial anomaly and growth deficit - - Yes -
10. 1 facial anomaly and CNS deficit - - Yes -
11. Concern by parent or caregiver that their child might have FAS - - Yes -
  1. CDC – United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for referral for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
  2. CNS – central nervous system.
  3. PAE – prenatal alcohol exposure.
  4. FAS – fetal alcohol syndrome.
  5. definitions of significant or high risk exposure vary between publications: CDC guidelines define significant as exposure to 7+ standard drinks per week, or 3 or more drinks on multiple occasions, or both.
  6. Characteristic FAS facial anomalies - smooth philtrum, thin vermillion border and small palpebral fissures.
  7. ‘-‘ not included.
  8. *There is some overlap between criteria listed due to slight variations in content.